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A Brief Introduction into Yellow Fever Disease

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Also known as yellow plague can most commonly found in topical forest areas such as africa, south america.There were epidemics of caribbean, subtropic and temperate region at North Ameica. Large epidemics was occured in ethiopia in 1960-1962 and in senegal 1965- 1966.

WHO shows that 200 000 diseases were recorded and 30 000 deaths was occured during one year. 90 % of patients with disease was african continents. In 2008 large number of yellow fever was reported in Togo. In 2016 Large outbreak was occured in Angola. At that time there were massive vaccination campaign.

First yellow fever definitive outbreak was occured in island of Barbados in 1647 and in spanish colonist 1648. Introduction of sugar palntation was increased mosquito breeding sites and that inreased disese outbreaks. Also from deforestation reduce number of insectivorus birds and that increse number of mosquitoes. During the 18-19 centuries in America 25 major outbreaks were detected. Serious cases in Cartagen 1741, Cuba 1762, Santa 1803. In 1878 20 000 people were died in missipissi River valley. 

There are three types of cycles such as forest cycle, intermediate and urban cycle – vector control with vaccination programme can reduce yellow fever urban cycle.That was helped in South America to nearly eradicate yellow fever.The cusative virus is flavivirus and vector is Aedes aegypti female mosquito. Size of flavivirus is about 25-65nm and it is single stranded RNA virus. It can survive in 4 centigrades one months and freeze dried for many years.Disease transmission can occur from mosquitos,ticks and by other mehods.This is a type of haemorrhagic fever. Incubation period is 3-6 days.most diseases are asymptomatic or mild. In severe diseases conditions may have high fever, severe headache, nausea, vomitting, andominal pain and back pain. In this disesese there is now specific treatments or therapy. 

Diagnosis of Yellow fever is made by the isolation of the flavivirus from blood or tissues specimens using viral cultures. Virus isolation is the gold standard for the isolation of viruses. In this method continuous cultures of mosquito cells are inoculated and incubated at 28C for 14 days after which the cells are examined for the antigen by immunofluoresence.

As a conclusion, Yellow fever can be prevented with vector control and vaccines. Vector control consist of the use of insecticides to kill adult mosquitoes, elimination of breeding sites and personal protection against mosquito bites involves wearing protective clothing and the application of insect repellant. Yellow fever vaccines YF17D  has long lasting immunity and are available for persons travelling to areas with yellow fever.

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