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A Comparative Study Between Shade and Economic Activities in Sri Lankan Urban Context

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A key objective within architecture and urban design is the creation of a ‘comfortable’ living environment for the people (Ingegard Eliasson, Igor Knezb, Ulla Westerberg, Sofia Thorsson, & Fredrik Lindberg, 2007). In a urban setting the setting people are tend the go to the Thermal Comfort

What is Thermal Comfort

Thermal comfort is “the state of mind that expresses satisfaction with the surrounding environment” Defined by ASHRAE (The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers). [image: ]The comfort is the expression of an individual’s wellbeing in his environment. The comfort can be identified in combination of the people’s physical, physiological, psychological, sociological and cultural factors. People are sensitive to discomfort because under the extreme climatic conditions, the thermal comfort becomes the most significant parameter for the use of the outdoor spaces. In Olgyay’s bioclimatic chart also indicated the comfort zone for the outdoor. But in here consider the air temperature and Relative humidity (Reiter & De Herde, 2005)Comfort is a necessary factor for the successful public spaces. The length of the remain time or the time that stay in a public space is a function and an indicator of its comfort. For the sense of comfort include the environmental factors, physical comfort and social and psychological comfort. (Carmona, Heath, Taner, & Steve, 2003)

Component of the Outdoor Thermal Comfort

Outdoor Thermal comfort has defined by different schoolers in different ways, but it is depending on the six primary factors. Those primary factors affect to change the outdoor thermal comfort in a particular place.

  • Ambient temperature
  • Radiant temperature
  • Relative humidity
  • Air motion
  • Metabolic rate
  • Clothing insulation

The ambient temperature is the air temperature of the particular place. When air temperatures are low, people feel cold and when they are high people feel hot. Comfort can approximately be achieved between 16 and 280C. Radiant temperature is the temperature of the surface around us. Relative humidity means the water vapour in air. In low humidity the air creates a dry and environment and high humidity creates clammy environment. Air motion or the wind velocity means air moves of around and touches the skin of the human body. Metabolic rate is the amount of energy expended. This also indicated as activity. Other thing is a clothing insulation. The materials used to retain or remove body heat through dress. (Raish, 2010)(Candler, 1990)[image: ]In outdoor thermal comfort mainly depend on the subjective and objective parameters. In subjective parameters are indicated that behavior and physiological factor in a people. (Mukherjee & Mahanta, 2014)When consider the subjective factors, Behavioural adaptation is affect to the different actions. This can be seen in three ways, personal adjustment, environmental adjustment and cultural adjustment etc. Those qualitative and the quantitative parameters can be used for the improve the thermal comfort of a public spaces (Reiter & De Herde, 2005).

Importance of the Outdoor Thermal Comfort

The main importance of the thermal comfort is, “It can affect human health by contributing to general discomfort, respiratory difficulties, heat cramps and exhaustion, non-fatal heat stroke, and heat-related mortality” (Source: U. S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006. Extreme Heat: A Prevention Guide to Promote Your Personal Health and Safety). The outdoor thermal environment is significantly affected to the built environment. As an example of, Human or anthropogenic heat generation, evaporation and evapotranspiration of the trees and plants, shading by man-made objects and tree cover and natural grass or the concreate paving’s etc. Outdoor spaces are naturally or people that will influence for effectively improve the quality of urban living. The people also experience various thermal sensation with carrying outdoor activities in urban parks, plazas, public squares and also day today life.

Outdoor activitiesWhat is the outdoor activitiesThere is no any clear definition for the outdoor activities but some schoolers are explaining the outdoor activities in a public space. In those outdoor activities are 100% functioning in the recreational areas. This mix of outdoor activities are influencing the various factors. The physical environment, social factors and economic factors are more influence for the functioning of the outdoor activities. (Nasar & Yurdakul, 1990)Types of outdoor activities. The outdoor activities are differing according to condition of the place.

Outdoor activities in a public space can be categorized into three types: Necessary activities, optional activities and the social activities. In those activities, necessary activities are included the more or less compulsory. These activities are more related to the walking. Social activities are depending on the presence of others in a public space. The character of the social activities are different and it is depending on the context in which it occur. The optional or the recreation activities are taken place when the exterior condition are optimal and the place is invite for the people (Gehl, 2011). In outdoor activities, movement is the fundamental phenomena that can be help understand how the place work. In two types of engagements that have encouraged to stay in a place separately, Passive engagement and the active engagement. In passive engagement: this type of engagement is merged with the location relates to a sense of relaxation which will require most appropriate physical setting in a particular place in that situation not need to actively involved.

As a result of this create a primary form of passive engagement such as, Sitting and watching etc. For such kind of activates will shape by the micro climatic factors. Active engagement can be identified an active experience with in a place. The social interaction among the involved people in place known as “peoples place”. With the different elements and the environment conditions are affect for the active engagement (Carmona, Heath, Taner, & Steve, 2003). Human outdoor activities also play a vital role in place functioning. According to Fauzi & Aditianata (2018) activities are divided as a Dynamic and static. Walking is categorized under the dynamic activities. Sitting, Standing, talking, Squatting, Sweeping, eating, snacking/shopping and playing categorized Static Activities. Importance of the outdoor activitiesIn activities are the liveable factor for the city functionality. The activities are happening in streets, roads, squares and parks etc.

According to Montgomery (2007) consider the two main concepts, vitality and diversity which defines the range of activities in a place. Vitality is defined as a number of present people within the space and it will have created actively functional place in a city. Vitality is depended on the economic, social and cultural factors space overtime that creates a diverse of patterns associated with outdoor activities. When consider the diversity also create a successful urban spaces within the city. Diversity defines the combination of mixtures of the activities. According Jacobs (1961) the creation of the places should not be neglect functionality of the places. The activities diversity fail will lead to the planning failure of the places.

The presence of the people engage with different types of outdoor activities creates the successful urban spaces. What is a recreation parksThe recreation park can be identified as a public open space which is located in the urban areas that have free accessibility to the people or the society and basically consisted with service, utility, comfort (Mohammad Javad Koohsari, 2018). Public green spaces with recreational services are contain an environmental resource, which are artificial but have natural characteristics and important role in improving the living environment (Wolf, 2008). Categorization of recreation parksIn identified the categorization of the recreation parks, it is depending on the manner of usage of open and recreational spaces, required properties and characteristics of space, degree of enclosing, presence of different sorts of content, time of usage, manner of linking, accessibility level, number of users and position. According to Petar Mitkovic (2004) catergirization can be identifed as,A) Recreational spaces as the integral part of the residenceB) Common recreational spaces of the residential unit groupC) Tertiary open spacesImportance of the recreation parksWhen consider the importance open and recreational spaces is a pyscho-physical regeneration of man and urban setting. In urban living, man is used to practicing the recreational activities. The significance is the recreation place is the create comfortable and optimal conditions for the rest, refreshment and the recovery.

On the other hand, best ways to relieve stress is spending time in the open spaces. This recreation spaces are help to strengthen of the interpersonal relations and contribute to socialization environment and getting people together (Deborah A. Cohen, Terry Marsh, & Stephanie Williamson, 2009).

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A Comparative Study Between Shade and Economic Activities in Sri Lankan Urban Context. (2019, September 13). GradesFixer. Retrieved November 28, 2021, from
“A Comparative Study Between Shade and Economic Activities in Sri Lankan Urban Context.” GradesFixer, 13 Sept. 2019,
A Comparative Study Between Shade and Economic Activities in Sri Lankan Urban Context. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 28 Nov. 2021].
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