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The racial minorities who were significantly affected by the New Deal Housing policies are the African-Americans. According to Schwartz (2014), 1933 was marked with the housing shortage in the United States, and this prompted the Federal Government to introduce the segregation of the African-Americans. The New Deal Housing policies were designed to provide housing to the whites, and the African-Americans left out of the new suburban communities. The housing policies promoted the policy of redlining which barred the extension of mortgages in and near the African-American neighborhoods. Moreover, the GI Bill of 1944 prevented the minority groups from purchasing homes from the whites who believed that the blacks did not deserve to have a better home even though they could afford.
The New Deal housing policies negatively impacted on the lives of the minorities and thus led to long-term effects. The policy of redlining rendered the minority groups poor and thus could not create wealth that they could pass to their subsequent generations. The redlining was implemented through the Federal Housing Authority which established the mortgage underwriting standards (Gordon, 2015). The mortgage underwriting standards discriminated against the minority groups since they received only 2 percent of the federally insured home loans and the approval rating for the African-American and other minority groups decreased. This led to a lower number of minorities acquiring a house. The redlining was discriminatory regarding property ownership. Thus, the housing policies led to long-term negative effects on the lives of the minority groups.
The Fair Housing Act of 1968 provided for equal opportunities to acquire and own a house by all Americans regardless of race or national origin. It stated that it is a federal crime to force or give a threat to other people based on their color or religion. It banned several forms of discrimination including refusal to sell or rent a house to anybody because of a difference in color, national origin or religion. It also banned the advertisement of the sale or rental of a house targeting people of a particular race or national origin and the threatening of a person’s enjoyment of the right to a house based on discriminatory reasons (Massey, 2015).
After the Second World war, the Vietnamese survivors, who were African-Americans, could not rent or purchase a house due to their skin color. Subsequently, the anti-discriminatory organizations of GI Forum and National Committee Against Discrimination in Housing advocated for the legislation of a fair housing Act to be passed. Senator Edward Brooke of Massachusetts supported the legislation of the Act. Moreover, the assassination of Martin Luther King and subsequent riots made the then president of the United States mount pressure on the Congress to pass the civil rights legislation to end the house discrimination (Massey, 2015).
The housing crisis that occurred in 2008 was controversial in the sense that the factors leading to it were never addressed. According to Chatterjee and Eyigungor (2015), causes of the crisis were attributed to the Wall Street. However, the fact is that the government made the biggest mistake of providing loans and houses to the people who cannot afford to repay them. The role of the federal government in the housing market should go beyond offering houses and loans. The federal government should take the role of evaluating the capability, of the people who want to purchase or rent a house, repaying their loans. The government could have prevented the crisis by putting in place the tools for oversight in the areas of bank capitalization and financial markets for early detection of the crisis and putting in place countermeasures.
An ethnic enclave is the concentration of people from the same ethnic group in one geographic place, place of residence, or workplace. Ethnic enclaves in the United States began due to the massive immigration of people of a particular ethnic group (Lim et al., 2015). The Immigrants clustered in certain areas, cities, or states. Certain factors contributed to the formation of ethnic enclaves including housing discrimination. Most of the immigrants composed of minority groups and thus they suffered from the effects of the New Deal housing policy which discriminated the minority groups in the 20th century. Thus, the formation of the ethnic enclaves was mainly due to cultural similarity and common problems among the immigrants.
Gentrification is the renovation of an urban area that had previously deteriorated. The area to be gentrified is normally occupied by low-class individuals. In the United States, the people living in areas of gentrification were mainly the minority groups (Mordechay and Orfield, 2017). The development of such areas has exposed the residents to several challenges. Through gentrification, residents have been displaced since they may not afford the new rental rates. Residents also have lost affordable housing to the new tenants who can afford the price increments. Moreover, the residents have been displaced leading to population pressures in the new areas of settlement.
In America, the African-Americans, Asians, and Latinos are the minority groups. According to Mordechay and Orfield (2017), gentrification mainly occurred in the 20th century, at the time when the New Deal Housing Act had been passed. Given that most of the minority groups were not as wealthy as the majority whites, gentrification negatively affected the minority groups. The gentrified neighborhoods saw the migration of the minority groups to areas where they could afford rent. Moreover, the wealthy people, regardless of the race, moved to the poorer neighborhood leading to price increment and thus the poor people had to move to other areas.
An ethnic enclave is mainly composed of people of a particular ethnicity who share common values of culture and other practices. According to Lim et al., (2017) most ethnic enclaves do not have foreigners among them. However, in some instances, external residents may decide to buy a home and live among people of a particular ethnic group. One of the motivating factors is education. An individual may want to learn the culture and practices of an ethnic enclave, and thus the best option is to take a step of living among the group of interest and get to learn one on one from them. Moreover, investors may also decide to move into areas of an ethnic enclave to invest and trade with people in those areas. Also, some ethnic enclaves are peaceful and welcoming and thus external resident, who is facing a tough time in his/her community, may decide to move into an ethnic enclave for security reasons.
Gentrification is a continuous process since it involves the improvement of the standards of an area. In San Francisco, tech companies like Facebook and Google have played a great role in improving the lives of people in that state. These companies are located in Silicon Valley, and since they have most of their employees living in San Francisco, they ferry them with the private company buses. This has raised the cost of living in this area making it prestigious through gentrification (Npr, 2013).
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