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IntroductionThe paper will have the structure and highlight the areas, as described here.
This part of the research paper values the advantages and prerogatives of the hydroelectricity power through the analysis of the information presented by the Georgia Water Science Center official resource and “National Geographic” magazine, which is known by articles publishing regarding the planet care. Researched information helps to calculate the costs and losses of the hydroelectric dam functioning and leads to the logical assumption of the economic impact and its significant place in the issue.
The second part of the research deals with historical facts’ studying and investigates the political power impact on the ethnic American tribes’ culture oppression and support. Common Smith B., Miller A.M., Archer T. and Hague C. E. work “Building Coalitions: Working with Diverse Cultures” and Alvarez A. article “Native American Tribes and Economic Development” help understand the major cultural differences in the values and jurisdiction of the Indians and modern Americans, as well as solve the ethnic problem risen in the researched situation. The work “Property Rights and Sacred Sites: Federal Regulatory Responses to American Indian Religious Claims on Public Land” written by M. Yablon and K.Rusmussen article “Native Americans and Religious Freedom: The Case for a “Re-Vision” of the First Amendment” explain the longevity of the process of the Indians’ rights protection achieving and persuade to support this side of the conflict.
After the both sides’ views on the issue understanding, the third part of the research analyzes consequences following from the each side demands satisfaction. Hallden, K., Grand, E., Hellgren, Z. sociology work “Ethnicity and Social Divisions: Contemporary Research in Sociology” help realize the importance of finding the compromise. For the right decisions of the issue, neither the economy nor ethnic minority values should be sacrificed. Possible decisions are described in the third item of the final part of the research.
Conclusion: In the end, conclusion will summarize the paper.
Contemporary people live in the multicultural society. Many immigrants come to each country to gain better opportunities in life. The USA began being the multicultural country since the discovering and spread settlings of Anglo-American and Europeans. For many years, different religious, customs and worldviews accommodated to each other for equal and harmonic existence. The history shows that within that period, not just further newcomers but also Native Americans were pressed by the new world rules. It is understandable that the interests of the majority always prevailed over the interests of minorities. Afro-Americans and Native Americans, also called Indians, suffered the most; if first survived racial discrimination, the second suffered also cultural and ethnic oppressions.
The differences of world perception did not allow Indians accommodate to the new barbaric and unnatural principles of the new settlers on their land. Cultural and ethnic conflicts, which were severe for centuries, still sometimes occur till today. Last century, American jurisprudence started protecting the ethnic minorities; although it is tolerant and respectful, still it is often challengeable, when the situation has economical or political power impact.
To understand this challenge we will analyze a sample of such economic versus ethnic issue. Lets fiction that a hydroelectric power dam for the territory protection against annual flooding was built on the river during 1950s and 1960s years. Early spring each year, the water level above the dam was lowered to allow for upstream snow melt and runoff later released downstream in a controlled fashion. The last year lowering of water showed signs of ancient burial, what was confirmed by the archeologists. Native American tribe whose reservation borders on the hydroelectric dam impoundment claims to keep the water level low, concerning the sanctity of holy grounds. The reburial is accepted by their culture as disturbing the bones of their ancestors and is tantamount to desecration.
To find a solution of the issue without causing economical harm and political oppression on the minor ethnic groups, through the analysis of advantages and values of both sides, is the main task of this research.
A. Economic and Flood Protection Advantages of the Hydroelectric Power Dam Functioning
A large hydroelectric dam, which work is under the question because of the ethnical rights protection, was built during the 1950 and 1960s, in order to prevent territory flooding repeated for decades. Hydroelectric dams consist of three significant functioning parts, a plant which produce electricity, a dam, which opens and closes to control river water level and a reservoir, in which the water from snow melting in spring is stored for further safe release. The building of such protective structure takes a lot of money, time and construction work. Even years of its building throughout 1950-1960 indicate its wide span and heavy expenses. However, besides the flood protection, a hydroelectric dam plays an important economic role producing the cheapest electricity, with further benefits of constant use of natural recourse and little spending.
Hydroelectric power is one of the oldest, cheapest and safest for environment method of electricity production. Huge power generators are located inside the water dams, and when the water flaws thought the dam it spins turbine blades, which are connected to generators. Produced power comes to homes and businesses supplying humanity with comfort and conveniences. The structure requires financing while building and installation but works by itself later. The water to run the power plant is free and is constantly renewable by rainfalls and melting snow; thus the reservoir is always full of the fuel, which does not burn and just flows in its natural way hence causing no pollution. This technology is proven over time and benefits both towards economy and spring floods safety.
A large hydroelectric dam building created a one million acre impoundment. Over time, recreational industry highly developed along the area, thus giving good incomes to businessmen and state. Satisfaction of the request of Native Americans lower the water level supply will considerably influence the business, rising not only ethnical versus economical question of the conflict, but also recreational versus religious views confrontation. Without doubt, the support of either side will cause mass protests.
When Columbus took a step on American earth, it was not uninhabited. Numerous ancient American tribes lived on it. Each of them had its own outlook and culture, but they were common in harmony search and ancestors respect. Hierarchy and earth possession were unacceptable notions for their philosophy, but they had to get used to them after the Europeans invasion and since that time their life would never have been the same anymore.
When the first settlers came to America, they faced the question of coping with the strange, original inhabitants, but remained tolerant until 1871, when the amount of the white representatives grew up and the government used a policy of isolation, removing Indians from the desirable land. Indians treat land as sacred and to bring their children on their forefathers’ earth is vital for their perception of the world. Moreover, land is important for their ordinary way of life and nourishment. Indian tribe does not accept printed word, and their tradition is just to retell hunting and fishing secrets thought generations. The change of locations of Indians resulted in tremendous morality despair and poverty. New settlers hoped for Indians accommodation for hundreds of years, but till now Indians stayed devoted to their culture and having gained freedom they follow their traditions and determine their own destinies and lives as sovereign people.
The earliest conflicts between Native Americans and Anglo-Americans rose on the ground of cultural differences. The culture of the first is characterized by the myths, rituals, and symbols, thus reflects its collective unconscious. However, Anglo-Americans believe in the original creation and sin, where God’s creatures, Adam and Eve, populated the Earth by people needing redemption. The concepts accepted by the one culture where strange for another and vice versa. The tolerance of cultural differences was destroyed, when Europeans brought with themselves notion of living in reservations and private business practice, which both were unacceptable according to Indian’s culture and religion that are aimed at living in a harmony with the seasons and the land. The equality and their rights protection was achieved after the lasting conflict just in the 20th century, when the situation had changed from the cultural to ethnical conflicts.
Many questions of protection Indians’ rights concern the land property and honoring of their holy places. Indians view land “as utterly incapable of reduction to ownership at the property of human beings” (Alvarez, 2011) and will never be able to accommodate to land possessive economy and private ownership, nowadays. The root of Native Americans’ beliefs is tied to the land, not to the church. They believe that everyone has a spiritual center, which may be located anywhere. It may be a river, a valley, a mountain, that is why everything on Earth should belong to everybody, and not to the one who has privatized it. Even, when Indians do not visit they sacred land, it remains a permanent fixture in their cultural and religious understanding. Today, the sacred sites of Indians are commonly located on public land, which is managed by the federal government, and this entails inconveniences, and both sides suffer from the issue of finding a compromise.
The burial places possess no less importance for Native Americans as the sacred sites. They believe that soul stays in the place of burial and goes nowhere, and that is why reburial in unacceptable. This concept is strange for modern Americans, and sometimes Indians protect burial places, which, in turn, leads to the economy and income decrease, is viewed as the whim satisfaction. In the multicultural country, the rights and interests of everyone should be considered, and the pressure on the freedom of expression, especially religious expression is inadmissible.
Ethnic minorities, which Native Americans were called after the rapid European invasion and settlement, often belong to the most deprived socioeconomic categories in the society where they live. After the isolation many tribes would fight back for the lands they were tied spiritually, but where simply overwhelmed.
“The modern era for Native Americans began with the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 and the Wheeler-Howard Act of 1934, which expanded reservations, encouraged self-government, and supported programs affirming of Indian culture” (Rasmussen, 2011). In 1973 Indian protesters claimed establishment of their own government and the right to run their affairs according to their own tradition, such as the power hierarchy and land ownership were barbarian for them. Throughout the 1980s, Indian tribes required numerous First amendment suits acceptance for the development of Indian sacred sites. Later, acts of the National Historic Preservation, Archeological Resources Protection and Religious Freedom Restoration were amended by the Congress, throughout the 1990s. After the long misunderstanding and cultural values humiliation, American native tribes had gained a chance to protect their sacred territories.
The ethnic groups’ sacred sites’ protection was in the authority of the land management agencies, which tried to solve the cultural conflicts in economically beneficial way. The tribe representatives’ values were not always absolutely satisfied, but some reasonable compromises to eliminate the ethnical inequality and show tolerance were found.
After spring, water level lowered, and the Native Americans tribe discovered an ancient burial ground less than a mile above the dam and claimed the need of maintaining of the river’s level low to avoid repeated submerge of their ancestors’ graves. In accordance to their culture, the disturbing of the bones of their ancestors is tantamount to desecration, and this raises the problem. The matter of the fact is that nobody, even the tribe itself, had known about the ancient burial location, which evidence was confirmed by the archeologists. Thus, there is no direct relation of the burial to the tribe, because graves are much older than were expected. The main problem of similar issues is that no one would protect the Indians’ holy places and burials, like their mistreatment. It flows from their perception of the land proprietorship and makes serious economical losses for modern full of businesses America.
However, in order to keep the water level low, building of an additional reservoir for melting water in spring is required. The process of its building will take much time and finances. Moreover, it will cause the decrease of the hydroelectrical dam electricity production and recreational industry decline. Indians are not rich to finance the building of the reservoir and the state will not do this either, considering the economic benefits. In order to avoid the serious conflict over threat of the sacred burials, the compromise should be found.
The system of the hydroelectric structure work and the recreational industry had been developing since 1950s and 1960s. For decades, no one guessed about the ancient burials in its site. In spite of high income, the organized, financed and managed system plays important protective role preventing the site from annual flooding. Moreover, if the dam is stopped, it will not be capable to keep the whole spring water. As the result, the major downstream flooding will be caused. It is crystal clear that the dam construction must continue its ordinary work to prevent the further losses and damages. Satisfying the Indians’ demand will lead to the mass protest of the people and organizations supplied by its energy and recreational industry workers, who will lose the work places. To avoid ethnocentrism orientation, which leads to the outgroup discrimination considering ethnic minorities’ rights, the decision acceptable for both sides should be figured out.
Find the right decision of this situation is not easy but possible. First of all further archeologists studying may confirm that the burial has no relation to the tribe ancestors. The most important here are the way and style it will be done with sound reasoning.
The other chance is the influence on their outlook. In the article of A. Alvarez, the Indian representative Makil Ivan says, “We are taught to think about how a decision we make about our land will affect the next seven generations. It is all about sustainability—about making decisions that ensure that our land, air, and water can support all forms of life for generations to come” (Alvarez, 2011). Consideration of these arguments after the calm explanation of the low water level consequences, the lands floods, and unemployed people, there is a possibility of the American tribe sacrificing of the burial for comfort and safety of the future generations.
Finally, to find the compromise acceptable for the both sides the burial, which stays at the centre of the issue, should be protected from the submerging without stopping of the dam operation. A concrete slab or even protective concrete with glass construction must be built around the sacred place. This construction can be equipped with the water pumps so as to prevent any fluid leakage. With ample financing, it can be built in the attractive to the tourists’ way. They may go under the water level, in order to see the archeological discoveries. The tribe’s members will be able to contact their ancestors in this way, too.
The building of such ancient burial protection construction will need financing but will lead to no war and divulging. In any case, these costs will be considerably lower than the losses of the hydroelectric station cease to work and recreational industry decline.
Compromises but not pressure is always needed to solve the conflicts. Living in a multicultural society the respect and honoring of the others cultures and values, even, when they seem to be weird, are vital for the peaceful coexisting. Native Americans ethnic minorities always felt misunderstanding of the Europeans and fought for their sacred sites and culture acceptation. The history turned so, that culture, which inhabited American land till the foreigners’ invasion, have changed its role from the main to the minor.
To prevent the further oppression living in the 21st century the Indians’ cultural values and holy sites should be considered. To do this with the least economical consequences and the greatest honor displaying is the matter of the management land agencies. However, the demands of the original Americans are not always fully satisfied, because of their huge impact on the economy and ordinary life of other citizens.
In a sample of this research, the demands by Indians to maintain water level low will cause huge economical losses and disturb the life of the people that live at the bordering downstream territory. The compromise here stays the best decision. It is not possible to persuade Indians about the impact of their decision on the future generations, or research the bones in detail to prove their indirect relation to the tribe’s history. Therefore, in this case, the construction of protection around burial ground is the best decision for the issue. It will demonstrate the total respect and consideration of different culture values, which is the key point in finding a solution in the conflicts like this.
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