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A Study on The Implementation of Innovation in Agricultural Sector for Progressive India

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The important policy measures introduced in the agricultural sector in India for the betterment of agricultural sector are as follows:

  1. Technological Measures: It is the primary measures to increase agricultural production to meet the growing needs of the population. To expand this programmed to larger areas of the country, some steps were initiated to increase the production of high-yielding varieties of seeds, fertilizers and pesticides within the economy and supplement domestic production by imports whenever necessary. This results in the self-reliant country.
  2. Land Reforms: Land reform measures to keep out the intermediary interests in land and transfer of land to actual tiller of the soil were expected to be taken up on a priority basis. Measures taken under this head included:
    • Abolition of intermediaries.
    • Tenancy reforms to –
    • Regulate rents paid by tenants to landlords;
    • Provide security of tenure to tenants; and
    • Confer ownership rights on tenants.
    • Imposition of ceilings on holdings in a bid to procure land for distribution among landless labourers and marginal farmers.
  3. Institutional Credit: Regional Rural Banks were set up to deal with the needs of agricultural sector. A National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) was also set up. As a result of the expansion of it, the importance of moneylenders has gone down and so has the exploitation of farmers at the hands of moneylenders.
  4. Procurement and Support Prices: Procurement and support prices is established to ensure fair returns to the farmers so that the prices do not go down and farmers do not suffer losses.
  5. Input Subsidies to Agriculture: The objective of this is to increase production in agricultural sector and productivity by promoting the use of modern methods in agriculture.
  6. Food Security System: It helped to provide food and other basic necessary goods to consumers at cheap rates, the Government of India has built up a food security system in the form of Public Distribution System (PDS) during the planning period.
  7. Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS): The Government has promoted the PDS by issuing special cards to people below poverty line (BPL) and selling essential articles under PDS to them at specially subsidised prices with better monitoring of the delivery system.
  8. Rural Employment Programmes: It aided in large-scale poverty alleviation programmes in the form of rural employment programmes are required to provide purchasing power to the poor. For this, the government introduced various poverty alleviation programmes particularly from Fourth Plan onwards like Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA), Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labour Development Agency (MFAL), National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), etc.


Every innovation has to meet a number of challenges to be successful. So India is also facing a challenge known as LIP SERVICE from Government. Indian Government pay only a lip service to the agricultural sector, especially the smallholder farming.

Government’s lip service to the agricultural sector: Most of the agricultural schemes and incentives do not reach the small and marginal farmers; they are cornered by the large and rich farmers and smallholder farmers continue to suffer. Deepen Parik has provided the list of all the schemes announced by the NDA government so far. But the ground reality in farming is very low. For instance, the tomato price fluctuates between Rs. 5 a kilo to 50 a kilo. Right now in other states, the farm gate price for tomato is the lowest at Rs. 2 a kilo. It will not even cover the labour cost of picking up the tomatoes from the field. How will it affect the farmers? They don’t harvest the tomatoes; just plough them down into the soil as organic manure.

Agrarian crisis

In India 85% of the total holdings (117.60 million) are both small and marginal, representing 44.5% of the agricultural land area. This works out to a mean holding size of 0.51 ha per farmer. In India, the customary procedure is to divide family land among sons and daughters. Thus, about 1.5 to 2.0 million new small, marginal farms are added every year. Small holders have little or no bargaining power in securing loans from scheduled banks (fewer than 4% of small holders have agricultural credit cards) and very few smallholder farmers carry crop insurance against natural calamities, etc.

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A Study on the Implementation of Innovation in Agricultural Sector for Progressive India. (2019, February 27). GradesFixer. Retrieved November 28, 2021, from
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A Study on the Implementation of Innovation in Agricultural Sector for Progressive India. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 28 Nov. 2021].
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