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A Study on the Occurrence of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (ppcps)

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A study on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), drug resistant bacteria and their removal efficacy of PPCPs in the wastewater treatment plants


  • ü To study the presence of PPCPs, heavy metals and their method development, in treated effluents of the hospital and domestic sewage and the receiving river water.
  • ü To study the removal efficacy of PPCPs and heavy metals at different steps of the treatment process.
  • ü To investigate the feasibility of constructed wetlands in the removal of selected PPCPs and heavy metals.
  • ü To investigate the drug resistant medically important bacteria in the wastewater and their Resistance genes.


Course/ Seminar Title Status Credits earned

  • 1 Research Methodology Completed 4
  • 2 Bio safety Completed 2
  • 3 Basic microbial techniques for resistance detection Completed 2
  • 4 Chemical safety and radioactive safety Completed 2
  • 5 PPCPs in aquatic environment in India Completed 2


Course work- 4: Basic microbial techniques for resistance detection

Microorganisms require nutrients to grow which is supplied either by solid or liquid media. Nutrient agar is a solid media, gelatinous substance derived from seaweed. The

basic liquid medium is nutrient broth, typically a mix of water, meat extract peptone, and sodium chloride. Some of the microorganisms require enriched media with growth promoting ingredients such as animal blood, glucose or egg. MacConkey agar is a differential media contains chemicals designed to distinguish microorganisms by the appearance of their colonies.

Types of Culture Media:

Based on the composition the media has been classified: Defined media classified as selective medium or differential media. Complex media which contains extracts of beef (peptone), milk (tryptone), soyabean meal (soytone) or yeast. Complex media and define media can also be called as selective media. For example, MacConkey agar is selective for gram negative bacteria.

There are different types of media used for culturing and isolating bacteria. Some of them are

Blood agar, MacConkey agar, Nutrient agar and Chromocult coliform agar.

Culture techniques:

Culturing of microbes is a method for multiplying microorganisms by allowing them to reproduce in the determined culture media under lab conditions. These cultures are used to determine the type of organism. It is one of the important diagnostic method of microbiology and also used as a tool to identify the infectious disease.


  • Streak plate method
  • Stab plate method
  • Stroke plate method

Staining Techniques:

Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopic techniques to enhance the clarity of the microscopic image. Stains and dyes are widely used to explore the structure of the biological specimens, cells, tissues etc.

The techniques are simple staining and grams staining

Simple staining:

Simple staining is a technique that microorganisms gives the color characteristic of the staining solution which reveals size and shape. The basic stains that are used are methylene blue, basic fuschin, malachite green etc. The bacteria present in the smear takes stain and appears in the color of stain. It is basically used to identify morphology and arrangement of bacteria.

Gram staining:

Gram staining is a technique that differentiates bacteria into two groups: gram positives and gram negatives. It is based on the ability of microorganisms to retain color the stains used during the reaction. Gram negative bacteria can be easily decolorized by the alcohol, losing the color of the primary stain, it will appear in purple color. Gram positive bacteria are not decolorized by the alcohol and will remains purple, after decolorization step, a counterstain is used to impart a pink

The common tests used for identifying the bacteria are

Motility Testing:

  • The test is used to determine the motility of the organisms to differentiate Enterobacteriaceae
  • There are different methods of motility determination depends on the pathogenic capability of the organisms.
  • Wet mount slide, hanging drop slide
  • Indole Test, methyl red, Voges Proskauer (MR/VP), Citrate Utilization test, Glucose Fermentatison & Gas Production, triple sugar iron agar test, catalase test, oxidase text and coagulase test.

Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion method for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing:

  • It is a routine technique used to test the sensitivity of the bacteria with the antimicrobials.
  • The procedure is as follows
  • Preparation of the inoculum from the primary culture. Similar appearance of the colonies is tested from different colonies and finally transferred it to the saline.
  • Streak the swab of colonies all over the plates by rotating the plate at an angle of 60oC and leave it for 3 to 5 minutes and allow it to get it dry.
  • Place the antimicrobial discs on the surface of the agar which can be placed using forceps and disc dispenser. Discs should not be placed closer than 24mm. The plates should be placed in an incubator at 35oC for overnight. Finally, the results be interpreted according to the antimicrobial susceptibility chart. The results are reported as susceptible, intermediate or resistant.

Course work- 5: Chemical safety and radio active safety

Chemicals may be liquids, gases, solids or powders have the tendency to harm health when it used or handled improperly, those can be corrosive, toxic agents, reactive or flammables can generate fumes, vapors, dust, and mists.

The usage, handling, storage and the disposal of chemicals have been increased. For estimating the benefits and dangers, one should consider the whole lifecycle of the chemical products. The accidents which have happened through the chemicals have a limited effect. These effects may not be the workers itself but also in homes by accidents or by the consumer products through foods. (1)

Radiation exposure more than permissible limits can result in serious biological damage which can be transfer to future generations. This results for the proper care and adoption of safe work practices while working with radioactive isotopes. The use of radioactive sources has become very wide quick after the discovery of radioactivity. It expanded from academic laboratories where physical characteristics of radiation as well as effects of radiation on humans, animals, plants or materials were studied to the broad use in industry, medicine, and research. Sources used today span from nuclear fuel in NPPs to smoke detectors used in homes. (2)

Chemical Storage:

The hazardous chemicals have to be stored according to their conditions and properties. Chemicals have the tendency to react together to become unstable or toxic. Liquids which are flammable should be stored separately to avoid fire.


Waste chemicals should be handled properly to minimize the personal hazards. Disposal of chemicals should be in a specifically labeled containers. The non-returnable cylinders may contain toxic and the reactive gas which should be disposed of properly. Chemicals which contain toxic agents should be decontaminated before the disposal.

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Personal protection:

Chemical splash goggles are to be used while handling the chemicals. Non-flammable, non-porous aprons are the least expensive and protective instead of lab jacket.

Radiation Protection:

  • Three types of protection are effective from ionizing radiation. They are time, distance and shielding
  • Exposure time helps to control the exposure dose
  • Try to reduce the time to spent in the radiation area to decrease the exposure

There is a direct relationship between the dose of exposure and the time duration of the exposure.

To reduce the exposure maintaining the maximum distance helps to reduce the number of photons per unit time to an acceptable level.

A barrier or shield before handling the radioactive isotope is used to protect against exposures. Shielding can be either container with heavy walls, concrete walls or cladding on radioactive material. (7)

Laboratory safety practices for handling radioisotopes:

The area should be posted with a caution sign where the radioactive elements are used. The levels of radiation intensity should be labelled on the doors of the rooms. The indicator tape should be marked to the containers of the materials containing radioactive

materials. The beakers, tubes and forceps should be marked with the caution tape. Lab coat or apron, eye protection and gloves should wear compulsorily before unsealing and while handling the radioactive materials. Pipetting the solutions with mouth is extremely dangerous and shouldn’t be done at any circumstances. Applying cosmetics, storing food or smoking near working area is dangerous.

Waste Handling:

Radioactive waste should be disposed only according to the safety rules. No waste should be thrown to the ordinary trash. No liquid waste may be disposed of into the drains or any sewer openings. For the mixed waste one should request radioactive safety for the proper disposal. (8)

First aid and safety equipment:

Every laboratory should be equipped with the first aid kit and the instructor should teach the usage of the kit. The lab should include fire extinguishers, wash fountains, eye wash and first aid supplies. Reporting must be done compulsorily for all the minor and major accidents.


  • Read safety rules and posters of fire alarm during an emergency.
  • Learn how to use the fire extinguisher, eye wash, and safety shower in lab.
  • Inform to the experts immediately for any spill, injury, fire or explosion.
  • Understand the complete building evacuation procedure.

General and personal safety in laboratory:

  • Hazardous materials should be handled only be wearing safety glasses, gloves and face shields.
  • Read the labels carefully before handling the chemicals or any hazardous materials.
  • Never use the instrument without proper training or the approval by the supervisor.
  • Lab coats, gloves and safety glasses should be used while handling dangerous substances.
  • The used materials should be disposed properly in the appropriate containers.
  • Failure in equipment’s should report immediately to the lab instructor or supervisor. Never try to fix the problem, it may harm.
  • Never pipette directly from mouth.
  • Clean the work area after finishing the work
  • Wash the hands properly before leaving or eating.
  • Electrical safety:

Follow the necessary rules before operating the high voltage equipment and maintain the proper wiring and electrical connections. Extension cords should be electrically grounded with fuse. Never modify the high voltage equipment and make sure all the capacitors are discharged. (12)

Usage of fire extinguisher:

  • Pull the extinguisher pin and aim to the source of the flames.
  • Press the trigger and hold it and sweep the source until the flames stop and extinguisher gets dry.

Common requirements of the laboratory safety:

  • The laboratory protocols for all the experiments especially safety regulations for the chemicals should be updated and follow the instructor be using it.
  • The proper writeup and the instructions list should follow properly while performing the experiment.
  • Safety googles and a lab coat while working with acids and chemicals.
  • Work surfaces should have chemical resistant.
  • Radioactive material should be separately washed. Separate sinks should be used for chemicals and radioactive materials.
  • Safety shower.
  • Eye wash for hazardous chemicals and biological material
  • Fume hood for the usage of chemicals and acids.
  • Biosafety cabinet for the biological compounds.
  • Decontaminated chairs and furniture.
  • Sufficient number of electrical outlets to minimise the usage of extension cords. (13)

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A study on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). (2019, March 27). GradesFixer. Retrieved October 23, 2020, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/a-study-on-the-occurrence-of-pharmaceuticals-and-personal-care-products-ppcps/
“A study on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs).” GradesFixer, 27 Mar. 2019, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/a-study-on-the-occurrence-of-pharmaceuticals-and-personal-care-products-ppcps/
A study on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/a-study-on-the-occurrence-of-pharmaceuticals-and-personal-care-products-ppcps/> [Accessed 23 Oct. 2020].
A study on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2019 Mar 27 [cited 2020 Oct 23]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/a-study-on-the-occurrence-of-pharmaceuticals-and-personal-care-products-ppcps/
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