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There are limited theatrical building facilities in Cebu that can house a huge number of audience. Opera house is a proscenium theatre in form. Seat check ranges from 1200 to 2,000 with a furthest breaking point of around 2,400 seats. The stage and backstage are machine with which to get ready and present the execution; the halls are spots of social assembly however the amphitheatre is a position of correspondence intended to upgrade the fundamental association that makes the theater-going background and is quite often staggered with side levels or boxes to improve visual and aural closeness. (Hardy, 2006)
Opera house is an art form in which performers like singers, dancers, theatrical plays and musicians perform a dramatic work which is called the opera. Opera performances consists of a stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, backstage facilities, auditorium, loge for costumes and set building. It consolidates other long vocal work “libretto” and melodic notation or sheet with each instrumental music or vocal part in vertical arrangement which is utilized to allude to sheet music which is composed for just a single performer. In opera, the stage performance rather than the orchestra is the main attraction by the spectators. The stage house must be deep, with considerable wing space for set movement and storage. (Rao, 2006)
Above the stage is called the fly tower which is built to accommodate the lifting of sets and it is about one and a half times the height of the proscenium opening above the top of the arch. (Long, 2006) Below the stage are the location for musical orchestra in order to balance the level between the singer and the musicians. The conductor stands at the stage level and must be visible to both vocalists and orchestra. (Long, 2006) It gives the best results in large rooms where orchestra is open to the audience or spectators with minimal stage. (Long, 2006) Some stage ﬂoor overhang in small auditoria is requirement to control the loudness in a hall. (Long, 2006) Sight lines are important for theater auditorium. (Long, 2006) In designing a good seating, from the stage, the furthest seat is not more than 30 m (98 ft) and 30◦ from the nearest side of the proscenium opening. (Long, 2006)
About the Convention Center
Convention center, also known as exhibition halls, is designed to bring people together to meetings and explore their mutual interest of subjects. It is composed of several acres and were multi-functional incorporating lecture halls, libraries, galleries, theaters and exhibition areas.
Cebu attracts investors from both local and international marketplace and have already been held several times in the city.
The Department of Tourism Regional Office contains the latest data gathering regarding the activities or special events of the current population done in using the convention facilities in Cebu.
Importance of Space Syntax Design
Space syntax design is a concept of designing spaces as an attempt to create explicit spatial relationships that coincides with daily experiences of the designed environment and functions as to the culture and social hierarchy of a place. (Peponis, n.d.) The approach conceptualizes spaces through relationships between the human beings and the inhabited spaces. (Dursun, 2007) Through this, it gathers distinctive characteristics of societies and later developed to an organization of spaces resulting to spatial configuration where the characteristic forms of the human behaviour are conceptualize into space networks. (Dursun & Saglamar, 2003) To specify the aim of the design approach, space syntax proposes that the shaping of society is based on spatial configuration of buildings. (Sailer & Penn, 2010)
Three principles in designing interior network of spaces:
Frequent Work-Related Informal Interactions
Defined by Setting of Different Work Styles (Peponis, n.d.)
Safety and Security Guide
Importance of Signage
Safety signs and symbols are important as it gives proper indication on different places or parts of a building like various hazards, area for toilets, activities to be done in a facility especially in our study which is the theatre and a convention centre and etc. This gives safety for communication. (Joanna, 2010) Safety signs and symbols creates safety awareness and notifies danger and threats. (Joanna, 2010) There should be appropriate actions in order to provide safety measures in the area and to keep the safety message and to avoid such “sign blindness” to the user. This method is to ensure safety by providing proper signage to its location. (Joanna, 2010)
In a theater or convention center aims to ensure proper access for all people, with or without disabilities to approach, enter or leave a building. Both theater and convention center should have at least three main points of access/egress, these are Loading Bay, Stage Entrances/Exits from Backstage, and Entrance/Exits for audience. (Ryan, 2007) For accessibility seating locations are intended for the use of individuals with mobility disabilities and their companions, in a front row seating which can be retractable to facilitate them and some theaters allocate wheelchair spaces on balconies in case they cannot afford to be in front or VIP seating. (Ryan, 2007) For easily identifiable access route tactile guide path for persons with visual impairment should also be considered and provided from the lot boundary to the entrance of a building. (China, n.d.) For doors and light traps should not protrude into the stage box. (Ryan, 2007) Often stairwell or ramps to fire exits or stage entrances are enclosed in a room. For fire Curtain, fire system should be attached, but should be capable of being on a stalled activation, so that false alarms do not mean the fire curtain automatically drops during performances. (Ryan, 2007) For evacuation procedures, there must be fire alarm system with all zones clearly identifiable, radio control system between Duty/ Technical Manager and FOH Manager, adequate one hour fire doors throughout the facility and conduct fire drills at least every six months so all workers or staff know what they should do and when. (Ryan, 2007)
Importance of Security Technology
According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, security in general is the quality or state of being secure, it means to be free from any harm. Individual safety and security is important because both safety and security affect an individual’s well- being and to ensure the overall safety and possessions of all individuals. (NZ, 2018) Having Security Technology, helps facility and its perimeter more secure. This is an easier way to see or detect what is happening from outside to inside of the building.
Architecture and Tourism
Importance of Tourism
Tourism is a potential reagent for economic growth and a key factor in macro-economy level of a country, as it is important in giving labour force and government’s source of income. (Agaraj & Murati, 2009) It holds economic progress which supports the foreign exchange reserves, and balances the generation of revenue from public and private income, which are both from government taxes and profit earned by items sold to tourists. (Cegar, 2014) The development of infrastructures are encouraged due to the progression in tourism of a country, on the other hand it is also a method for cultural exchange. Lastly, it will add a new global culture of a certain region creating an iconic identity. (Cetin, 2011)
Importance of Iconic Identity
Tourists are attracted by qualities and are not drawn to tourist attractions, experience and exploration through place and culture of the region, especially the architecture, food, people, and diversity are the beauty of tourism. (Scerri, Edwards, & Foley, 2016) Then, aesthetic spaces are defined by architecture in physical form creating landmarks and iconic identities, driving a sense of place and directing a focal point of attention and experience for tourists. (Edwards, Foley, Dwyer, Schlenker, & Hergesell, 2014) An iconic design in architecture is an alluring identity which creates an interesting physical obtrusiveness that gathers visitors and hinting an idea of development in a city. (Scerri, Edwards, & Foley, 2016) Iconic identity is then achieved through (1) Aesthetic value which is acquired through identity, vision, and reputation in a region, and (2) Cultural value which is expressed through location, context, and patterns of historical development. (Cegar, 2014) Both values creates benefits of the society resulting identity and value of a building. (Scerri, Edwards, & Foley, 2016)
Sound is the sensation produced through the ear to the brain and the physical cause is determined. (Long, 2006) This causes the vibrations of an elastic medium (usually air). (Siebein, Paek, Lilkendey, & Skelton, 2010) These vibrations are produced by movement of air molecules due to the action of external pressure. The acoustic measures the sound, and all the sound we hear is the result of these changes. (Long, 2006)
For the Theatre stage and Concert Halls
Concert Halls Acoustics
Everyone wants to join or witness a spectacular concerts. It is one of the man’s greatest joy and satisfactions. Enjoying a fine symphony composed by the world’s greatest artist, performed by a world class orchestra. The key reasons for people go to a concert hall is to enjoy music in a very special way. It’s absolutely fundamentally experience that there’s a wonderful acoustic for the users to enjoy the music and also importantly the great acoustic for musicians to perform in because if they perform in a great sound, they enjoy and perform better especially those who are considered to be the best of ears.
Acoustics have played an important role in the pleasure that it brings to the ear of an individual and generating seating arrangement in an auditorium has two basic types it’s either be identified as continental or multiple-aisle. (theatresolutions, 2016)
Reverberation time is how much time a sound needs to decay after it has stopped playing. The shape of the concert hall is closely related to the reverb time of the concert hall. Some shapes work better than other in the context of a music. It is affected mainly through the materials of the wall as well as the size of the concert hall. It range from 1.5 to 2.2 seconds with preferred values between 1.8 to 2.0 seconds. Clearly the choices depend on the type of music and the volume of the space. Baroque music requires the lowest times (1.5–1.7seconds), classical the mid-range (1.6–1.9 seconds), and romantic the longest (1.8–2.2 seconds). To attain long reverberation times, the ceilings of concert halls are high,15m (50ft) or more, and diffusive, with coffered pattern shaving deep (15cm or 6 in) ﬁssures. Sidewalls are adorned with columns, caryatids, statuary, and convex shapes that help diffuse the reﬂected energy. (theater.asp, 2009)
Seating with sight line
The most fundamental principal of “places of assembly” theatres, concert halls, arenas etc., is that the audience must see and hear. (STeele, 2015) Experts especially in the field of acoustics, says if you can’t see, you will definitely can’t hear. This is a very critical element when designing a good and proper sight lines in a theater.
One-row sightlines means that there is an elevation between rows of seating which allows adults to see over the heads of the row immediately (one row) in front of them. (STeele, 2015) Two-row sightlines rely on staggered seating to allow a view between the heads in the row immediately ahead and on rise between rows to see over the heads two rows ahead. (STeele, 2015) One- and-two-row sightline must get steeper with each row. (STeele, 2015)As more heads accumulate in front of each row a steeper slope is necessary to see the stage well. (STeele, 2015)
According to John Scott Russell that sightline criteria in theaters can include: the “acoustic curve” in 1838 and applied at the Auditorium Building in Chicago and the Emery Theatre in Cincinnati; alternate row sightlines where each patron sees between the heads of patrons in the row in front and over the heads of patrons in the second row in front; next row sightlines where each patron sees over the heads of patrons in the row immediately in front; and basic considerations like pointing the chairs more or less toward the performance, being able to see the conductor in the pit, being able to see other patrons, being able to see actors on elevated scenery, and not being obstructed by a wall, railing, column, ceiling overhang, loudspeaker cluster, or any other obstruction. The design of sightlines includes considerations of how much of the stage and scenery each patron can see. For example can each patron see the top of the scenery or not, and can each patron see the whole stage floor or not? Design of sightlines is divided into two related exercises, vertical sightlines and horizontal sightlines. Design of proper sightlines includes resolving both technical and aesthetic issues. At issue is the emotional response of the audience: whether a performer can hold the audience’s attention or not; whether the patron feels they had a “good” seat and their ticket was fairly priced or not; whether the audience gets the emotional impact of the performance or not; and whether the patron wants to come back and see another performance in that theater or not. Building codes restrict the maximum and minimum rise per row, limit the minimum width per row, limit the maximum deviation in the size of steps from row to row to achieve the curvature of the rake, and limit other aspects of sightline design.
In designing a good theater, it must be with functioning auditorium according to the type of performance and the number of the audience, keep the standard distance for a comfortable audience seating; multiple-aisle arrangement, the continental seating plan. The stage is important where actors and other artists perform and the focal point for the audience. Keep the scenery low for better visibility and sound quality is as important. Services and equipment noise control such as air conditioning, lifts, toilets and projection equipment need to be controlled or away from the theater and acoustic design should be considered from feasibility stage location, auditorium planning etc. (consultant)
Importance of Clear Spatial Dimension by Acoustic Cues
Acoustic cues are directionally dependent to the interaction of sound waves of the body, head, and ears. These cues will produce a sense of three-dimensional space creating spatial dimension and way-finding. Enrichment of listening experience can create a sonic picture through the environment by spatial awareness. (McCormick, 2014) Acoustic design constitutes spatial formations and creates sonic spaces with different qualities even in one same room, thus, it is another way in distinguishing rooms as it creates auditory perception to the listener. (Hellstrom, 2005) Here are three basic sonic spatial principles that deals in designing space nodes:
Abrupt sonic change between two spaces
Smooth passage of sounds of two sonic spaces where both partially overlap with each other
Sharply marked sonic space coinciding another sonic space (Hellstrom, 2005)
The specific qualities of the principles is the effect on our perception of interacting and communicating between different types of sonic spaces, consequentially, making users secure and comfortable, especially, on PWD users. (Hellstrom, 2005)
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