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The history of sugar dates back to 8000BC when sugarcane was first domesticated in New Guinea by its inhabitants before gradually spreading to China and India. In 500BC, Indian manufacturers started to make cooled sugar syrup. Sugar arrived in Europe in 300BC although the Europeans embraced it more than 1000 years later after the end of the Crusades (Rippe, 2014, p. 7). In the 5th century, imperial Guptas discovered how sugarcane juice can be converted to granulated crystals. In the 6th century, the Chinese established their first sugarcane plantation using the knowledge they had acquired in India. Later sugar spread to Central America (in 1500s) and in 1600s, crystalline sugar was discovered in beet (Rippe, 2014, pp. 11-12). From its discovery to the 18th century, sugar was expensive and unavailable to most Europeans and Americans. In 1801, Franz Karl established the first sugar factory in Germany and by 1900s, this product was popular becoming an essential ingredient in candies, chocolates, and processed foods. By the 20th century, sugar had become a common product used regularly by everyone in the world. Richard Marshal and Earl Kooi developed high-fructose corn syrup in 1957 which has become a key ingredient in most sweet products such as sodas (Rippe, 2014, pp. 24-26).
Processing of white sugar mainly entails five steps. The first step involves shredding the harvested sugarcane, mixing it with water and then crushing it using rollers to extract juice. The obtained juice is taken to step two where it undergoes filtering and evaporation. The juice is further purified and boiled to remove and color (Manay, 2005, p. 15). In step three, the sugar crystals are rotated using a centrifuge and evaporated to obtain raw sugar. Often, sugar crystals are large and slightly brown. Step four completes sugar production and its packaged and distributed to stores for purchase (Manay, 2005, pp. 24-25). The last step involves combining granulated white sugar in the refinery with natural minerals to remove impurities. Non-sugar ingredients are removed by washing and filtering sugar through carbon. Lastly, the refined sugar crystals are further processed into granular form, dried and packaged (Manay, 2005, p. 28).
Principle Growing Regions, World Sales, and Usage of Refined White Sugar By 2017, the principle growing regions of sugar included United States, Philippines, Indonesia, Colombia, Mexico, Pakistan, Thailand, China, India, and Brazil (Sheth, 2017). According to the 2017 United States Department of Agriculture report, the world sales of sugar have been indicating a growing trend since 2009 and sugar consumption is expected to go over 175 million metric tons by 2018 (United States Department of Agriculture, 2017, p. 1). With regards to usage, refined white sugar is used in the preservation of jams and jellies, for baking, canning, and freezing, candy, general cooking and beverages such as sodas (Institut Piawaian dan Penyelidikan Perindustrian Malaysia, 2014, pp. 1-7).
Stephane Klein is France born individual who is a professional in sugar work. Klein took his first steps in gastronomy in the bakery owned by his parents at Native of Belfort. The craft captivated Klein and since he has talented in art, he started to sculpt sugar. Klein graduated with a degree in pastry cooking and started working with his father. He was enthralled by the art of sugar which he had discovered through the Encyclopedia of Yves Thuriès. Under the inspirations of French creations of the double master craftsman, Klein made his first creations in sugar (a basket with flowers, a swan). Today, Klein owns a school of Sugar in Belfort which has trained over 400 people in the art of sugar-pulling and pastillage (Musée “Arts du Sucre et du Chocolat, 2014).
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