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Presently, around 226 aquaculture ponds are actively carrying out aquaculture activities with around 52 stakeholders in around 185 hectares of land. Release of untreated water from these ponds into open waters of the river was seen during the period. The untreated water consist of chemicals (like Chlorine, lime etc) and left over feed are drained in the open water. Two shrimp Species are generally cultured in the Kali estuary
As Litopenaeus vannamei is the maximum cultured shrimp species in the Kali estuary the water parameters are mainained for the survival and faster growth of this species. Salinity: The optimum salinity level for Litopenaeus vannamei is 10 to 40 ppt, but it can tolerate salinity levels up to 0. 5 to 45 ppt. Growth is slow below 10 ppt. In the shrimp farms in Kali estuary, salinity was maintained between 15 to 35 ppt average. Temperature: Temperature plays a key role in aquaculture. The optimum temperature for culture of Litopenaeus vannamei is 30 to 35°C. This temperature was seen to be maintained in the area. pH: pH is the expression ion hydrogen ion concentration. the pH in water serves as an indicator of acidity and alkalinity. It is an important factor which affect the metabolism and other physiological processes of prawn.
The optimal range of pH maintained for shrimp culture is 7. 6 to 8. 5. pH of the pond water is mainly influenced by carbon dioxide and ions in equilibrium. Whenever high pH is noted lime are being applied to bring it down.
Water exchange in Shrimp Farm: The exchange of pond water is one of the most important activity of water management. Sometimes water may get polluted by the feed added to the pond. The unconsumed food settles down and decompose and may lead to biological oxygen demand. Water exchange in pond may be become very much essential when deficiency of dissolved oxygen, high/low salinity and temperature changes occur. Rate of water exchange is altered occasionally depending on phytoplankton density, salinity occurrence etc. We could see regular water exchange being carried out by the farmers in study area.
Feed management strategies: Shrimps are nocturnal continuous intermittent feeders. Therefore shrimp are feed several times per day. The shrimp in the pond are fed shrimp feeds. The feed supplying companies has its own feed chart and according to that the feed is circulated into the pond on the days of culture, average body weight, biomass of the pond, feed conversion ratio. Average body weight of the shrimp is calculated by sampling method. the biomass of the pond is calculated first, by using the formula: Biomass = population x average body weight (gms) 1000 After calculating the biomass, Total daily feed (kgs) is calculated, making use of formula: Total daily feed = biomass assumed x feed ratio (%) (kgs) 1000 Pond Management: Farm Design Requirements: Bio-security requirements like reservoir ponds, fencing, crab fencing bird fencing, and disinfection facilities are incorporated in the design. To avoid disease in most cases zero-water exchange system of farming is practiced with recirculation facilities. In such cases more than 40% of the water area in the farm is allocated for reservoirs and waste sedimentation ponds. Crab fencing: Crabs are one of the carriers of viral pathogens and providing crab fencing in shrimp farms is considered as one of the important bio-secured measure. Carriers like crabs could also move from pond to pond over land barriers.
To prevent such movements crab fencing should be put around culture pond. Bird Netting: Birds such as crow/ water crow pick up the dead and moribund shrimps affected with viral disease from ponds and may drop in unaffected ponds, there by transmitting the virus mechanically. This could be avoided by using bird scares and bird fencing over the pond. Bird netting was seen to be put in all the aquaculture pond. Management of the farm: Drying and Liming: The sludge left in the pond, which might have had viral disease outbreak during the previous culture, may contain high organic load, bacteria, viral particles as well as many other viral carriers. Total lime deposited in the pond during the single crop: 30-35 bags of lime are required. Fertilization and addition of carbon source: Fermented juice is prepared using 10kgs of rice flour, 5kgs of jaggery and yeast. This is done to increase the plankton bloom into the pond. This fermented juice us fed into the pond at a rate of 50litres a time, it is prepared in a 200ltrs container. It gets prepared after the second day. it should smell well only then its ready. Methods followed for Stocking of shrimp seeds in Kali estuary: Packed bags kept in pond to get acclimatize for some time in the early morning hours before releasing the seeds into the pond.
The opened bags are again kept into the pond water for further acclimatization Carefully releasing the seeds into the pond Feeding Method followed in shrimp farms of Kali estuary: Aeration method followed in Kali estuary: Only 50% of the shrimp farms in Kali estuary was using Paddle aerators powered by electricity. About 2-4 aerators were being used in a single pond of around one Hectare. Shrimp farms in Kali estuary: A total of 226 shrimp farms are operation in kali estuary. Of these around 75 shrimp farm in Zone 1 area, generally almost all the ponds are present in Kansgeri and Bandarwada area. In Zone 3 around 151 shrimps farms are operation round the year, these ponds are present in Sunkeri village, Makeri Village and Kadwad village, these creek has a thick Mangrove vegetation and high sainity throught out the year. Most of the farms culture L. vanamei and only few practice P. monodon culture.
All the seeds are brought from the hatchery for culuring. Traditional methods of culture Practice is not to be seen. Another factor is most of the farms in Zone 3 area don’t have electricity connection and aerator are completely absent. Water exchange in this ponds are generally done by diesel operated pumps. Of the total 226 shrimp farms 60 were operational in zone 1 area and 125 in Zone 3 area. Almost all the ponds were operation during Pre-Monsoon and Post- Monsoon. During Monsoon no farms were operated only the farms stocked during the end of pre- Monsoon stocked were kept for harvesting. Table 4. 1: Active Shrimps farms in different months during the study period.
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