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Analysis of Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics

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Introduction

The meaning of methodology According to Polit and Hungler (2004:233), methodology refers to ways of obtaining, organizing and analyzing data. Methodology decisions depend on the nature of the research question. Methodology in research can be considered to be the theory of correct scientific decisions (Karfman as cited in Mouton & Marais 1996:16). In this study, methodology refers to how the research done and its logical sequence. Mouton (1996:35) describes methodology as the means or methods of doing something.

Description of study area

My Action research carried out carefully at one of Rwandan’s secondary schools called GS REMERA. It is located in Northern Province, Rulindo district, Cyinzuzi sector, Migendezo cell. It has both nursery and primary and both ordinary level and 30 teachers and 1013 students compose advanced level with one combination of Mathematics Economics and Geography, the school. Research design is concerned with how a researcher carried out action research; the research was designed as a descriptive survey to look for the causes of learner’s low performance and suggest the strategies to improve learner’s low performance in Mathematics at GS REMERA. The researcher used different tools like; questionnaire, test, observation/assessment and interview to correct information related to the topic. The collected data was then analyzed, discussed and then presented in form of tables

Study population

Study population refers to the totality of people or objects in which study is concerned .This study was carried out at GS REMERA was chosen as an area of study. At school the research worked with senior five learners doing Mathematics, Economics, and Geography (senior five MEG)

Study sample

Students a target group .I used 10 students to answer questionnaires (5boys, 5girl) and other teachers including science teachers and head of studies of GS REMERA interviewed. This area was chosen because it has a problem of students’ performance and that area was accessible to the researcher to implement the group work techniques.

TABLE 1. TARGET GROUP

School Students Science teacher Head of studies Total

Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female

GSREMERA 12 8 2 3 0 1 14 12

Intervention

The purpose of This Action research is to overcome the problem of learners ‘low performance in Mathematics. As intern after identifying the problem of the learners, I try to find the best way to solve that problem. The best way is using group work method as technique to deal with this problem. At the beginning the students did not understand the new method of working in groups and most of them did not take seriously peer activities, but by doing many interventions they have appreciated the method. During data collection period, students and their teacher provided all information needed by research and I analyzed it confidentially.

Methods of data collections

For any study to be successful, various tools should be used as a practical means of obtaining information related the role of enhancing teaching and learning Mathematics. In this research, interview, observation, Questionnaires, Test, documentation and internet explorer were used as tools in data collection.

Interview

An interview is a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked by the interviewer to elicit facts or statements from the interviewee. Researcher made conversation with Learners of senior five MEG at GS REMERA about the causes of poor performance and strategies in which teachers can use to handle learners low performance in senior five MEG the findings of this interview helped the researcher to suggest the effective strategies to handle learners low performance in senior five MEG.The result are summarized in this table

TABLE 2.Using group work methods help learners to improving their performance

Responses Number of respondents Percentages

YES 17 85%

NO 3 15%

The above table shows the appreciation of students about the technique of group work method after using it. Referring to the table above, students agree that group work method has helped them in changing positively about their performance. Here are some reasons that cause to appreciate this method. In-group, learners understood deeply the tasks (questions) as they had time to discuss about it. They were fear of asking questions to the teacher, but they feel free for asking their colleagues, this has increased the learners’ participation in class activities. With a technique of group work, learners become interested in the course, as they understood the topic presented, got occasion to ask questions, thus they became familiar with the course. During our group presentation, we got the occasion to express our ideas, as it was in English, our communication skills also increased.

Observation

This technique helped the researcher to correct data by observing the field to which the research is carrying out. Observation was made indirectly through classroom activities and collaborative tasks. The aim of this Observation was to find area of weakness among learners of senior five MEG and suggest the strategies to improve learner’s weakness. See what internee observed in (Appendix1

Documentation

This involves reading different documents found in library and on the internet in order to know what other scholars wrote about the role of using group work to improve performance. It helps to support the views and arguments obtained from questionnaires. All documentation found, help the researcher to collect information related to the effective strategies to improve learner’s performance.

Questionnaires

A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents is also defined as a set of carefully structured statements or questions prepared by a researcher and administered to the respondents to obtain in writing some information related to the topic. The researcher divided questionnaires into two party one is concerning for teacher’s questions ,others for learners questions .both questions have multiple choice and open ended questions permit the respondent to express their own point of view about the strategies to increase learners performance in Mathematics.

Learners’ questionnaire.

The learners’ questionnaire was administered to senior five learners about the causes of low performance in senior five MEG at GS REMERA. Learner’s questionnaire helped the researcher to set the strategies to overcome those problems of low performance .see appendix 2

Teachers’ questionnaire.

Teacher’s questionnaire provide information about the causes of learner’s low performance and it gives information about the strategies used to improve learners achievement in Mathematics subject at GS REMERA.See appendix 3

Test

Learners of senior five MEG have passed different assessment tests from the stage of diagnosis the problem during internship period. All those tests were given to the learners to evaluate their improvement in Mathematics subject. According to the marks obtained by learners in tests, the researcher diagnose problem and suggest the strategies to handle those matter.

Methods of data analysis

Data analysis according to LeCompte and schensul (1999) define analysis as the process of reducing large amounts of collected data to make sense of them. Patton (1987) indicates that three things occur during analysis .data are organized, data are reduced through summarization and categorization, and patterns and themes in the data are identified and linked.

Merriam (1998) said that there is five stages of data analysis

  1. Narrative; refers to reading or writing of textual data
  2. Coding; refers to organizing and reorganizing the data into categories that enables the researcher to identify relationship between and among categories
  3. Interpretation; these techniques are these actions that enable the researcher to make meaning from the narrative and coding activities and facilitate the researcher’s understanding of conceptual framework generated through the coding process
  4. Confirmation; these techniques enables enables researcher to be confident that the interpretations they have derived are from the data and not from researcher construction
  5. Presentation; refers to techniques researchers may use to present the finding to a particular audience in a cogent manner and with serve as a tool for further analysis and explanations

Conclusion

As conclusion, statistics can be divided into two branches. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics consists of techniques involving collecting, tabulating, presenting and summarizing information in clear and the effective ways in order to describe the set of data while inferential statistics involves the techniques of analyzing sample results to draw conclusion about the population both term are considered for my research. The chapter describes the introduction, description of study area, study population, study sample, intervention, methods of data collections, and methods of data analysis.

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