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Analysis of the Ethical Ideologies behind Utilitarianism, Deontology, and Moral Relativism

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Utilitarianism

In normative ethics, utilitarianism is used to describe a theory that places the center of the right and wrong actions on consequences of choosing either of the choices. The moral normative theory also describes the consequences of not choosing one option over the other. The theory concentrates on the need to satisfy the needs of the entire society rather than the needs of an individual or an alienated group of people.

For example, the theory is applicable in the law of retribution where by the entire nation is justified to attack Japan for its Pearl Harbor attack on December 7th 1941. In carrying out attacks on Japan, the country represents the needs of all the citizens and not any individual. Japan might have carried out the attack to satisfy the needs of the top government officials, but under the Lex Talionis, carrying out retaliatory attack would justify the protection of the citizens of the whole nation. Japan is also an example of a possible utopian society where the suffering of one child makes determines the happiness and well-being of the rest. Japan probably carried out attacks at the Pearl Harbor for their happiness while the people at the harbor suffered.

Utilitarianism is a moral theory that is also used to determine the validity of the rules of conduct. The theory requires that the right rule is that which gives the best possible outcome out of the choices. For example, in the selection of a supplier, Steve Jobs opted to use the one in America and not the one from Foxconn. He notes that their best choice of a supplier is because of the high rates of suicide at Foxconn (Thomas 22).

Deontology

Deontological ethics refer to the normative theories that emphasize on the type of choices that are required according to the morals of the society. The theory recognizes the morals that are accepted, those that are forbidden and permitted according to the morals of the society. The theory asserts that the choices, which people make, are guided by the domain of moral theories. The theory does not focus on the consequences of the choices that people make, but on the morality of those choices.

For example, the philosophical work of Immanuel Kant, which states that people ought to act in a way that they treat humanity and as if the actions were the end to their relationship. The requirements of the theory are also stated in the book of Leviticus where human beings are meant to be holy, just like God himself. Again, morally, human beings ought not to take revenge since moral ethics have it that people should love another as they love themselves (Kant 352).

Moral Relativism

Being a controversial topic in philosophy, philosophers have understood the theory in various ways, with people defending its various forms. The theory is linked with the dispute that there are widespread disagreements that there is no rationalization for complete ethical judgments. Considering the ethical principles of some people, the principle is also said to be a normative point on how people ought to act against them. The people whom others think about and act against are those who are thought to be morally wrong. The theory asserts that despite the disagreement, such people should be tolerated in the society. For example, Simon Blackburn supports moral relativism by noting that moral standards are what people decide to do from a list of other existing standards that should also be tolerated (Blackburn 1).

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GradesFixer. (2019, March, 12) Analysis of the Ethical Ideologies behind Utilitarianism, Deontology, and Moral Relativism. Retrived November 22, 2019, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/analysis-of-the-ethical-ideologies-behind-utilitarianism-deontology-and-moral-relativism/
"Analysis of the Ethical Ideologies behind Utilitarianism, Deontology, and Moral Relativism." GradesFixer, 12 Mar. 2019, https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/analysis-of-the-ethical-ideologies-behind-utilitarianism-deontology-and-moral-relativism/. Accessed 22 November 2019.
GradesFixer. 2019. Analysis of the Ethical Ideologies behind Utilitarianism, Deontology, and Moral Relativism., viewed 22 November 2019, <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/analysis-of-the-ethical-ideologies-behind-utilitarianism-deontology-and-moral-relativism/>
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