Apoptosis: the Important Detail of Health: [Essay Example], 522 words GradesFixer
close
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers.

Apoptosis: the Important Detail of Health

downloadDownload printPrint

Pssst… we can write an original essay just for you.

Any subject. Any type of essay.

We’ll even meet a 3-hour deadline.

Get your price

121 writers online

blank-ico
Download PDF

Apoptosis is a common programmed cell death which eliminates cells that are not required, dislocated or badly damaged in our body (Amaral, 2008). This process can trigger by two major pathways which are either intrinsic pathway or extrinsic pathway (Phillipyau, 2004).

Cellular stress or mitochondrial stress caused by DNA damage, radiation, nutrient deficiency, viral infection and heat stock triggers the intrinsic pathway (Kabel et al, 2016). When a stress signal enters, the proapoptotic proteins in the cytoplasm (BAX and BID) bind to the outer membrane of the mitochondria and release signal of the internal content (Fulda and Debatin, 2006). The signal of BAX and BID is not enough to generate the reaction (Phillipyau, 2004). BAK is another proapoptotic protein that needed to promote the complete release of cytochrome C and the intramembrane content from the mitochondria (Fulda and Debatin, 2006). Cytochrome C forms a complex in the cytoplasm with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and Apaf-1 enzyme. This complex activates an initiator protein called as caspase-9 (Amaral, 2008).

Intrinsic pathway of apoptosis (Amaral, 2008). Activated caspase-9 reacts with the cytochrome C complex, ATP and Apaf-1 to form an apoptosome. It will activate the effector protein known as caspase-3 that initiates degradation (Phillipyau, 2004). The release of cytochrome C from the intramembrane space, the intramembrane content released also contains apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) to facilitate DNA fragmentation, and Smac/Diablo proteins to inhibit the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) (Fulda and Debatin, 2006).

In the extrinsic pathway, ligands (signal molecules) bind to transmembrane death receptors on the target cell to stimulate apoptosis (Kabel et al, 2016). Cells possess the Fas ligand (FasL) on their surface (Fulda and Debatin, 2006). FasL binds with the Fas receptors (a death receptor) on the target cell and triggers the aggregation of multiple receptors together on the surface of the target cell. To aggregate these receptors recruits an adaptor protein known as Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) on the cytoplasmic side of the receptors (Phillipyau, 2004). FADD recruits an initiator protein known as caspase-8 to form the death-inducing signal complex (DISC). The recruitment of caspase-8 to DISC, caspase-8 will be activated and it directly activates an effector protein known as caspase-3 to initiate degradation of the cell. Activated caspase-8 converts BID protein to tBID, which acts as a signal on the membrane of mitochondria to initiate the release of cytochrome C in the intrinsic pathway (Fulda and Debatin, 2006).

Extrinsic pathway of apoptosis (Amaral, 2008). P53 protein is a specific DNA-binding protein that induces either cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in damaged or transformed cells (Kabel et al, 2016). It plays a major role in the DNA damage induced ultraviolet (UV) radiation, toxins and hormones (Fulda and Debatin, 2006).

The p53 gene regulates apoptosis by some important regulation mechanisms. Mdm2 is the main regulator of p53 gene. Initially p53 activates the expression of Mdm2. The p53 gene degrades by binding with the Mdm2 in ubiquitin system. In normal cells phosphorylation of p53 prevents the binding of Mdm2 gene to avoid degradation. Damaged DNA activates protein kinase (ATM, DNA-PK) to phosporylate p53. It increases the p53 level which in trn increases Mdm2 release and initiates apoptosis (Phillipyau, 2004).

infoRemember: This is just a sample from a fellow student.

Your time is important. Let us write you an essay from scratch

100% plagiarism-free

Sources and citations are provided

Find Free Essays

We provide you with original essay samples, perfect formatting and styling

Cite this Essay

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

Apoptosis: the Important Detail of Health. (2019, January 15). GradesFixer. Retrieved May 13, 2021, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/apoptosis-the-important-detail-of-health/
“Apoptosis: the Important Detail of Health.” GradesFixer, 15 Jan. 2019, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/apoptosis-the-important-detail-of-health/
Apoptosis: the Important Detail of Health. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/apoptosis-the-important-detail-of-health/> [Accessed 13 May 2021].
Apoptosis: the Important Detail of Health [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2019 Jan 15 [cited 2021 May 13]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/apoptosis-the-important-detail-of-health/
copy to clipboard
close

Sorry, copying is not allowed on our website. If you’d like this or any other sample, we’ll happily email it to you.

    By clicking “Send”, you agree to our Terms of service and Privacy statement. We will occasionally send you account related emails.

    close

    Attention! this essay is not unique. You can get 100% plagiarism FREE essay in 30sec

    Recieve 100% plagiarism-Free paper just for 4.99$ on email
    get unique paper
    *Public papers are open and may contain not unique content
    download public sample
    close

    Sorry, we cannot unicalize this essay. You can order Unique paper and our professionals Rewrite it for you

    close

    Thanks!

    Your essay sample has been sent.

    Want us to write one just for you? We can custom edit this essay into an original, 100% plagiarism free essay.

    thanks-icon Order now
    boy

    Hi there!

    Are you interested in getting a customized paper?

    Check it out!
    Having trouble finding the perfect essay? We’ve got you covered. Hire a writer

    GradesFixer.com uses cookies. By continuing we’ll assume you board with our cookie policy.

    exit-popup-close

    Haven't found the right essay?

    Get an expert to write you the one you need!

    exit-popup-print

    Professional writers and researchers

    exit-popup-quotes

    Sources and citation are provided

    exit-popup-clock

    3 hour delivery

    exit-popup-persone