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The world is going through a technological and scientific revolution and the military organization is the primary drivers behind the revolutionary changes in technology. The impact of the computer-driven technological revolution on military capabilities and future potential has certainly become clear over the past quarter of a century. This paper showcases the study of some of the most recent technologies which are being used by the military organization all over the world to empower themselves.
The growing challenge of security in World is one of the most concern to all and every effort must be employed to combat this challenge. Some of the pertinent questions raised in the paper are, Can our Information Technology skills & strategy guarantee security? Do the security agencies have proper Information Technology Infrastructure in place for the purpose of information gathering, sharing, and dissemination? Do they have adequate surveillance equipment? Information technology (IT) will play a critical role in strengthening The National security against potential future attacks and threat. Specifically, IT will help enable the nation to identify potential threats, share information more readily, provide mechanisms to protect the Nation, and develop response capabilities.
This working paper is an attempt to respond to that demand. It aims to clarify some basic understandings about autonomy: what it is, how it applies to weapon systems, how it works, how it is created and what the key technologies are available.
Weapons – As the concern of security has become one of the most challenging tasks for the military. The use of computer technology upon weapons has become one of the most important parts of the military defense system. However, the technology which is applied to the weapons is rapidly growing in order to make the most sophisticated and powerful weapons that can reduce the drawbacks of existing weapons.
Types Of Weapons – In the recent era of technology, the weapons can be categorized into two categories that are partly autonomous and fully autonomous weapons. In this review paper, we will focus on the fully autonomous weapons and the technologies which are applied to it.
Autonomous Weapons – In simple terms ‘autonomy’ can be defined as the ability of a machine to execute a task or multiple tasks, without any human input, using the interaction of computer programming with the environment. An autonomous system is by extension, usually understood as a system whether hardware or software that, once activated, can perform some tasks or functions on its own.
However, autonomy is a relative notion: within and across relevant disciplines, be it engineering, robotics or computer science, experts have a different understanding of when a system or a system’s function may or may not be deemed autonomous. As previously identified by Scharre, these approaches can be sorted into three categories.
Categories of Autonomy are as follows:-
1. The human-machine command-and-control relationship.
A very common approach for assessing autonomy relates to the extent to which humans are involved in the execution of the task carried out by the machine. With this approach, the systems can be classified into three categories. Systems that require human input at some stage of the task execution can be referred to as ‘semi-autonomous’ or ‘human in the loop’. Systems that can operate independently but are under the oversight of a human who can intervene if something goes wrong (e.g. malfunction or systems failure) are called ‘human-supervised autonomous’ or ‘human on the loop’.
Machines that operate completely on their own and where humans are not in a position to intervene are usually referred to as ‘fully autonomous’ or ‘human out of the loop’. The concept of ‘sliding autonomy’ is sometimes also employed to refer to systems that can go back and forth between semi-autonomy and full autonomy, depending on the complexity of the mission, external operating environments and, most importantly, legal and policy constraints.
2. The machine’s decision-making process
A more technical approach to autonomy relates to the actual ability of a system to exercise control over its own behavior (self-governance) and deal with uncertainties in its operating environment.3 From this standpoint, systems are often sorted into three major categories: automatic, automated and autonomous systems. The label ‘automatic’ is usually reserved for systems that mechanically respond to sensory input and step through predefined procedures, and whose functioning cannot accommodate uncertainties in the operating environment (e.g. robotic arms used in the manufacturing industry). Machines that can cope with variations in their environment and exercise control over their actions can either be described as automated or autonomous.
What distinguishes an automated system from an autonomous system is a contentious issue. Some experts see the difference in terms of degree of self-governance and view autonomous systems merely as more complex and intelligent forms of automated systems. Others see value in making a clear distinction between the two concepts.
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