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Average and Massive Star Formation

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Average star

Stage 1

Stars forms in a high density region of Nebula (Orion Nebulae) and scattered throughout most galaxies. Stars are born when a group of clouds and dust (Cepheus B) begin to collapse under its own gravity.

Stage 2

As the cloud collapse, the materials at the centre begin to heat up and the particles (clouds and dust) start to fuse together which is the energy source of the stars. Therefore, the star starts to shine forming Protostars. Protostar is the hot core at the heart of the collapsing cloud that will become a star. The central temperature of a protostar is able to reach 15 million degree Celsius when its contain matters enough.

Stage 3

During the high temperature, hydrogen atoms of new born star fuses together to form helium (diffusion) which creates energy that powers the star.

Stage 4

The stars start to release energy, preventing the star from collapsing and causes it to shine, becoming a Main Sequence Star such as Sun.

Stage 5

The solar mass of a star remains the same in main sequence for about 10 billion years, until all of the hydrogen has been used up and fused together, forming helium about 50 million years and became mature from the beginning of the collapse to adulthood. Our Sun will stays in mature phase for about 10 billion years.

Stage 6

The helium core begins to collapse further and the star become denser and hotter.

Stage 7

When helium core is hot enough, the helium begins to form carbon and oxygen. As the star begins to fuse helium, it creates more energy, causing the outer layer of the stars to expand. One day, our Sun will grow very large that will swallow up all the planet of the solar system and it will become a Red Giant.

Stage 8

The helium core weaken, and the outer layer of the star gets further from the middle and force of the gravity will getting weaker, causes the outer layers leaving away from the core and expand out to become a Planetary Nebula (the most beautiful objects in the universe).

Stage 9

The remaining core becomes a White Dwarf which is only about the size of the Earth that is incredibly dense and hot. After millions of years, it will cool down and become a Black Dwarf.

Massive Star

Most of the massive stars live for billions of years.

Greater than the Sun (9 times).

Stage 1

Massive stars gets mature from a small stars until it reaches its main sequence star which the process is similar to the growth of average star (from stage 1-4). The stars shine steadily until the hydrogen has fused, forming helium which takes millions of years.

Stage 2

The massive star becomes a Red Supergiant and the helium core surrounded by a layer of expanding gases.

Stage 3

In the following million years, different elements in shells around the iron core are formed by a series of nuclear reactions.

Stage 4

When enough hydrogen has accumulated on the surface, nuclear fusion occurs, causing the white dwarf to shine brightly and release the remaining elements. Within a few days, the glow subsides and the cycle starts again. Sometimes, some massive white dwarfs may accrete a large mass of elements which causing it to collapse and explode completely, becomes a Supernova.

Stage 5

When a star explodes as a supernova, most of its elements is released away into space to form a nebula. The high dense remnants of the imploding core which are left behind are known as a neutron star, as its electrons and protons are crushed together in the huge gravity to form neutrons. Chandrasekhar limit (Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, 1935) were established which is about 1.5 solar masses above which a star must continue to collapse under its own gravity into a neutron star. However, if the core of the star is greater than 3 solar masses, the core collapse and will become a Black Hole.

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Average and Massive Star Formation. (2019, January 03). GradesFixer. Retrieved October 16, 2021, from
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