close
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers.

Bartter Syndrome

downloadDownload printPrint

Pssst… we can write an original essay just for you.

Any subject. Any type of essay. We’ll even meet a 3-hour deadline.

Get your price

121 writers online

blank-ico
Download PDF

Discuss the channels for regulation of electrolyte balance!

Bartter syndrome is caused by mutations of genes encoding proteins that transport ions across renal cells in the thick ascending limb of the nephron. Specifically, mutations directly or indirectly involving the Na-K-Cl cotransporter are key. The Na-K-Cl cotransporter is involved in electroneutral transport of one sodium, one potassium, and two chloride ions across the apical membrane of the tubule.

The basolateral calcium-sensing receptor has the ability to downregulate the activity of this transporter upon activation. Once transported into the tubule cells, sodium ions are actively transported across the basolateral membrane by Na+/K+-ATPases, and chloride ions pass by facilitated diffusion through basolateral chloride channels. Potassium, however, is able to diffuse back into the tubule lumen through apical potassium channels, returning a net positive charge to the lumen and establishing a positive voltage between the lumen and interstitial space. This charge gradient is obligatory for the paracellular reabsorption of both calcium and magnesium ions.

Proper function of all of these transporters is necessary for normal ion reabsorption along the thick ascending limb, and loss of any component can result in functional inactivation of the system as a whole and lead to the presentation of Bartter syndrome. Loss of function of this reabsorption system results in decreased sodium, potassium, and chloride reabsorption in the thick ascending limb, as well as abolishment of the lumen-positive voltage, resulting in decreased calcium and magnesium reabsorption. Loss of reabsorption of sodium here also has the undesired effect of abolishing the hypertonicity of the renal medulla, severely impairing the ability to reabsorb water later in the distal nephron and collecting duct system, leading to significant diuresis and the potential for volume depletion. Finally, increased sodium load to the distal nephron elicits compensatory reabsorption mechanisms, albeit at the expense of potassium by excretion by principal cells and resulting hypokalemia. This increased potassium excretion is partially compensated by α-intercalated cells at the expense of hydrogen ions, leading to metabolic alkalosis.

Remember: This is just a sample from a fellow student.

Your time is important. Let us write you an essay from scratch

experts 450+ experts on 30 subjects ready to help you just now

delivery Starting from 3 hours delivery

Find Free Essays

We provide you with original essay samples, perfect formatting and styling

Cite this Essay

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

Bartter Syndrome. (2019, February 27). GradesFixer. Retrieved January 23, 2022, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/bartter-syndrome/
“Bartter Syndrome.” GradesFixer, 27 Feb. 2019, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/bartter-syndrome/
Bartter Syndrome. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/bartter-syndrome/> [Accessed 23 Jan. 2022].
Bartter Syndrome [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2019 Feb 27 [cited 2022 Jan 23]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/bartter-syndrome/
copy to clipboard
close

Sorry, copying is not allowed on our website. If you’d like this or any other sample, we’ll happily email it to you.

    By clicking “Send”, you agree to our Terms of service and Privacy statement. We will occasionally send you account related emails.

    close

    Attention! This essay is not unique. You can get a 100% Plagiarism-FREE one in 30 sec

    Receive a 100% plagiarism-free essay on your email just for $4.99
    get unique paper
    *Public papers are open and may contain not unique content
    download public sample
    close

    Sorry, we could not paraphrase this essay. Our professional writers can rewrite it and get you a unique paper.

    close

    Thanks!

    Please check your inbox.

    Want us to write one just for you? We can custom edit this essay into an original, 100% plagiarism free essay.

    thanks-icon Order now
    boy

    Hi there!

    Are you interested in getting a customized paper?

    Check it out!
    Having trouble finding the perfect essay? We’ve got you covered. Hire a writer
    exit-popup-close

    Haven't found the right essay?

    Get an expert to write you the one you need!

    exit-popup-print

    Professional writers and researchers

    exit-popup-quotes

    Sources and citation are provided

    exit-popup-clock

    3 hour delivery

    exit-popup-persone