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The battles of bull run both proved that the union lacked proper training and that the civil war would be more difficult to win then first thought. The battle of Bull Run was the first considerable land-based crisis of the American Civil War. The Union Army commander in Washington Bridgaider General Irvin Mcdowell gave in to immense pressure to campaigning before his mens 90-day enlistements depart he did not feel the army was appropriately trained yet leading to a dazzling confederate victory and ending northern hopes of a quick end to the war(historynet.com).July 16,1861 he set out with the army of the northeastern Virginia 28400 from Washington to charge at the confederate forces nearby Manassas, Virginia 25 miles away and push them further from the northern capital. Bridgadier General P.G.T. beauregard had been clustering the confederate army of the potomac manassas since the spring of 1861 and 21800 soldiers at hand. He was looking after key rail station at manassas junction and had fanned his troops out along bull north of town. General Joseph E. Johnston, though senior in rank to Beauregard arrived from the Shenandoah Valley not long before the battle but being unexpected with the terrain deferred to beaugard. After showing up in the manassas vicnity on July 18, Brig. Gen. Daniel Tylers Union Division examined Bull run and engaged in a skirmish at Blackburns Ford. After Losing about 150 men, tyler Disengaged.
With Knowledge from previous reconnaissance, Mcdowell was prepared to use two columns to attack the confederates left flank while a third circled to the far right flank and south to provide a disturbance cut the confederates off from richmond and an effort was made to move them farther southeast(historynet.com). Early morning July 20th Johnsons troops began boarding the railroad at piedmont station patterson waited to long to charge at them.
July 21st Mcdowell sne two divisions north towards sudleys springs, Confederate colonel Nathan evans suspected attack at stone bridge. They were able to slow down divisions progressing from the north by midday they were being driven back towards Henry Hill crosswise the road behind them. Second Battle of bull run Major General John Pope selected by President Abraham Lincoln in March 1862 to order the freshley formed Army of Virginia was hardly beaten by Gen. Robert E. Lee’s army of northern virginia due in part to popes confusion of the battlefield baffled orders and reluctance of other union commanders to come to his aid. Confederate lietuant general thomas J stonewall jackson and Lt. Gen James Longstreet hemmed in and beat the federals. Unlike the full scale naive union troops that appeared during the first First battle of bull run,in second bull run pope and his more accomplished troops made a purposeful stand that allowed the army to retreat in a precise fashion after darkness fell. March 1862 Lincoln dismissed Maj. Gen. George McCleallan from Long-Term command of union armies giving him command of only of the army of potomac. A new Army of Virginia was built from different elements and Maj. Gen. John Pope whose family had close contact to lincoln to was chosen to lead it.
Pope had accomplished a victory at Island No. 10 in missippi river and had shown verve at Corinth Missippi but he was exalted to army command mainly because of policitical leaning and accessed to the war which was more than destructive than McClellans.Pope was not held in high revere by most of his men and mcclellans who looked at him as arrogant hypocritcal and annoying. In July 1862 Lincoln selected General in chief Henry W. Halleck to correspond the effort between McClellan and pope. Lincoln allowed Mcclellans plan to go forward with the army of potomac against the confederate capitol of Richmond, Virginia in which is also known as peninsula Campaign. To make it straight forward for mcclellan to attack richmond from the east, pope was to disturb lee by attacking the virginia central railroad close to Gordonsville 65 miles northwest of richmond.
However Mcclellans discreet advance was thrown back in the Seven Days Battle. July 29 pope took it to the field, it was obvious to the gen. Robert E. Lee was planning an attack on the railroad and lee sent jackson to guard it resulting in the battle of cedar mountain confederate victory. Pope disengaged to the Rappahannock and asked halleck reinforcement from McClellans.Sadly Halleck was in washington and his orders grasped little sway with McClellans, who dragged his feet in departing from the peninsula. August 25th Jackson began a fast march north around pope while Longstreet stayed facing pope on the Rappahannock. Pope guessed Jackson was going towards the Shenandoah valley and under orders from halleck to hold,continued where he was guarding the the Rappahannock crossing. Jackson was capable of turning his army east fleeting through throughfare Gap in the bull run mountains moving towards Bristoe Station Jackson pushed into Mansassas Junction and apprehended the union supply depot on August 27 which was possibly the best day in his mens military career expected the to big amount of food and supplies they were able to access. They burned what they did not carry.
On hearing of the capture of his supply depot pope marching the Army of Virginia north. He witnessed an excuse to surround Jackson at Manassas where he felt confident victory assuming his troops moved at a quick pace and Jackson stayed in place without reinforcement with longstreet. Longstreet’s men were also progressing toward manassas but on the west side of the Bull Run Mountains ensuing the route that Jackson took. they met up with Federal resistance at the battle of Throughfare Gap. Longstreet was able to beat the small union force and continued on forward a union with Jackson.
Jackson instead of occupying manassas junction transported to groveton where he found a good place to lay in wait for pope while stille being able to rejoin with longstreet. Pope was sastified of command and spent the rest of the war in the west, first annihilating the sioux uprising and then as a commander of the division of missouri the biggest department under the federal army. McClellan was given direction of the army of potomac which consumed the army of virginia. Second manassas inspired lee leading him to march north to invade Maryland in the Maryland campaign appearing in the battles of Harpers Ferry,South Mountain,Antietam, and Shepherdstown.
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