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Bioactive Properties of Endophytic Fungus: Pharmaceutical Perspective

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Natural Bioactive compounds have been used for their therapeutic applications for centuries. Such products are usually secondary metabolites extracted from animal, plants or their symbiotically associated microbes. Use of these natural products has gained popularity due to their added advantage over chemical synthetic drugs that have many side effects (Strobel and Daisy, 2003). Moreover, owing to a rise in Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumonia (PRSP), Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriace and Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) incidences in last two decades, a dire need for novel drugs has raised (Menichetti, 2005, Geisinger and Isberg, 2017). Besides, production of bioactive compounds by the plant, are dependent on parameters like specific developmental stage, nutritional availability, stress and environmental conditions (Chandra et al., 2012; Dudeja and Giri, 2014). Attributed to these limitations, exploring microorganism provides a prospect of easily renewable, inexhaustible and cost effective source for bioactive compounds. Some examples of natural products success stories in pharmaceutical industry are vinblastine, taxol, camptothecin, podophyllotoxin, topotecan and vincristine (Cragg and Newman, 2004).

Endosymbiotic group of microorganisms that colonize in intra and/or intercellular locations to the plants, without causing any pathogenicity are known as endophytes (Pimental et al., 2011). The endophytic fungus mainly belongs to three taxa Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Zygomycota (Carvalho et al. 2012). A number of studies have described bioactive metabolites derived from endophytes, which have wide range of application in pharmaceutical, agriculture, food and cosmetics industries (Strobel and Daisy, 2003; Zhang et al., 2012; Gouda et al., 2016). These bioactive compounds exhibit various attributes including antibacterial, antifungal and anti-cancerous properties. The endophyte produced secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins, steroids, quinones, chinones, benzopyranones, xanthones, terpinoids and teralones, which are bioactive compounds with medicinal properties (Schulz et al., 2002; Strobel and Daisy, 2003). Furthermore, there have been reports that sometimes endophytes produce same bioactive metabolite as the host plant (Chandra, 2012).

Another rich source of bioactive secondary metabolites is marine microbes. These metabolites range from antibiotics, novel anti-inflammatory agents and anticancer agents (Boopathy and Kathirsean, 2010). Compounds range from various metabolites such as terpenoids, polyethers, macrolides, alkaloids, nucleosides and peptides (Dhinakaran et al. 2012).

This review aims to provide an insight to the various secondary metabolites derived from microorganisms that can be a source to novel bioactive compounds for pharmaceutical use.

Endophyte bioactive compound with antimicrobial properties

A number of studies have described bioactive metabolites derived from endophytes, which have wide range of application in pharmaceutical, agriculture, food and cosmetics industries (Strobel and Daisy, 2003; Zhang et al., 2012; Gouda et al., 2016). These bioactive compounds exhibit various attributes including antibacterial, antifungal and anti-cancerous properties. The endophyte produced secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins, steroids, quinones, chinones, benzopyranones, xanthones, terpinoids and teralones, which are bioactive compounds with medicinal properties (Schulz et al., 2002; Strobel and Daisy, 2003). List of a wide variety of endophytic compounds with bioactive properties from various origins has been described in Table 1.

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Bioactive properties of endophytic fungus: Pharmaceutical perspective. (2018, December 11). GradesFixer. Retrieved January 23, 2021, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/bioactive-properties-of-endophytic-fungus-pharmaceutical-perspective/
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Bioactive properties of endophytic fungus: Pharmaceutical perspective [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2018 Dec 11 [cited 2021 Jan 23]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/bioactive-properties-of-endophytic-fungus-pharmaceutical-perspective/
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