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BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODOLY (GST 5113)

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Background of the Study

The progress to tertiary level from secondary level has frequently been dealt with as a period that cause significant worry in the lives of students and it has been found to increase their anxiety and decrease their self-esteem. Undergraduate students are students that Many of undergraduate students suffer stress during the period of their study. Stress is unavoidable and sadly, it produces migraine, neck crick and leads to numerous health issues such as depression and anxiety (Clark, 2013). (Campbell, 2006) describes stress as the bad response people have to overwhelming pressure or other kinds of demands placed on them. Stress happens when an individual is faced by a circumstance that they perceive as uncontrollable and cannot confronted it. Furthermore, (Greenberg and Baron, 2000) interpret stress as a posh style of emotional conditions, reactions of physiologiy and connected thoughts in reacting to external demands”. They talk over with the strain emanating from the atmosphere as stressors. samples of stressors are: the strain of labor assignments, social relations between co-workers, one’s relations with one’s mate and kids, and social obligations.

As indicated by D’Zurilla and Sheddy (1991), undergrads have inclination to stress as a result of their transitional nature of change in accordance with the fundamentals of advanced education program. This implies that a sudden change in secondary school condition that has low utilization of modern technology to the exceedingly comprehension level of learning lead to stressful circumstances. Thus, they have difficulty to understand new lectures in classroom and experience social contrasts (Aquino, 1998). When they are in college environment, students must make sure they are adapted to the higher education’s standard – quick paced educating – learning conditions and techniques. Prather (2013) said that by having things kept into viewpoint, having a lot of fun with leisure activities, and loving the gratification or appeasement moderately are the leys to eliminate stress. Anything that represents a risk to well-being affects both mental and physical health (MayoClinic Staff, 2012).

There are regular stressors in university life such as higher academic demands, being without anyone else in new environment, financial problems, attention to one’s sexual personality and introduction, presentation to new individuals furthermore, settling on choices on a larger amount (National Health Ministries, 2006). Acquiring high evaluations is a wellspring of stress that influences them to prevail in establish great connections to their folks, schoolmates and noteworthy other people. Disappointments progress toward becoming weights that originated from intrapersonal, relational, scholarly and natural stressors (Lucier, 2012). Inside and outside stressors are operators that reason pressure (Chadha, 2006). Undergrads take a gander at these stressors to influence them when they come up short from their scholarly exercises knowing this as the significant reason of their folks’ endorsement (Edlin and Golanty, 2007). They investigate these weights as the essential worry for acknowledgment and respect (Reifman, 2011). Relevantly, understudies utilize this as the primary motivation to ask for extra money related recompense from guardians or gatekeepers. The way that influences them to flop in their scholarly work decides their endorsement (Ellis and Harper, 2006). These endorsements incorporate kid young lady relationship, guardians’ adoration and money related help, instructor relationship, peer weights, among others. Understudies and educators are the most influenced in advanced education condition. Undergrads, as beneficiaries of stress, are the subject of this study.

Problem Statement

  1. Stress has always been an issue among undergraduate students. Entering tertiary level education causes undergraduate students to face stress. There are many researches has been conducted before on factors of stress among students but there is no research on factors of stress among business undergraduate students. So, this study is conducted to find out the factors of stress among undergraduate students in universiti Malaysia Kelantan Kampus Pengkalan Chepa and to study the highest contributor of stress among the factors of stress.
  2. Research Questions

    1. What are the factors of stress among undergraduate students in universiti Malaysia Kelantan Kampus Pengkalan Chepa?
    2. What is the highest contributor of stress among the factors of stress?

    Research Objectives

  3. To study the factors of stress among undergraduate students in universiti Malaysia Kelantan Kampus Pengkalan Chepa.
  4. To study the highest contributor of stress among the factors of stress.

Scope of Study

The study will be conducted at the area of Pengkalan Chepa, Kelantan which is at Universiti Malaysia Kelantan of Pengkalan Chepa Campus.

Limitation of the Study

  1. In the present study, only business undergraduate students from UMK Pengkalan Chepa were taken as a sample. So, it cannot be generalized to other universities in Kelantan. Further study can be done on business students in other universities.
  2. Timeframe for the study is only four months, so, the research has the potential not be comprehensive and complete. However, the time limitation can be solved with time management and focus.

Significance of the Study

Undergraduate students of UMK PC will pay more attention to their physical and mental health to ensure that they are free from stress. Furthermore, they will examine their emotions at all times to ensure that they are not too stressful. At the same time, by finding out the factors of stress, they will learn how to manage these factors as problem (stress) cannot be solved without finding out the causes (stressors). Besides, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan of Pengkalan Chepa will work on solving undergraduate students’ problem with learning and apply appropriate strategies to enhance their learning effectiveness to ensure that they are not too stressed with academic demands. In addition, UMK will provide courses on life stress coping regularly to strengthen students’ psychology and educate them on how to have fun and calm themselves as well as providing them skill in managing stress.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

People usually will have stress that affects their body to have quick changes to their body. For example, feelings of emotional uneasiness that causes the body strains with body aches. Stressful situations that happen frequently which cause tension and pressures on the body will further lead to physical and psychological problems. Dixon & Robinson, 2005Defining stress from a medical dictionary dwells on any situation that evokes negative thoughts and feelings among persons or groups. It means that people who encounter stress will have different experiences in their feelings and thoughts (D’Zurilla & Sheedy, 1991). This is imperative to the amount of stress involvement they encounter when stressed. This can be influenced by individual’s ability to effectively cope with stressful events and situations (Segal, 2013). Disclosed to this is when college students meet such nervous tension and is not dealt with effectively, they feel lonely and nervous with excessive worrying due failure to cope with their negative feelings. College students had almost the same patterns of encounters about stress related problems (Gittins, 2007). This involves many factors such as interpersonal, intrapersonal, academic and environmental. The 2001 National College Health Assessment of the American College Health Association Report (2001) revealed that during the year 2000, 76% of students felt “overwhelmed” and 22% were unable to function as a result of depression. This means that stress among college students caused body strains with body aches where they are unable to normally function in times of stress.

Presnall (2008) conducted the Student Stress Survey that showed the college students having high stress on school related issues. Some of these pressures affected their emotional and mental health. Furthermore, the survey polled 2,253 undergraduate students aged 18 to 24 randomly selected from schools nationwide and revealed that the primary sources of stress were financial problems, relationship, family problems, and extracurricular activities. In the outcomes of students who experienced stress, they considered alcohol drinking, wanting to use drugs and going out with friends as their immediate solutions. Professional help from teachers and counselors were also seen as a positive solution. MacGeorge, Samter & Gillihan (2005) and Sasaki & Yamasaki (2007) said that depression is a major problem. Intrapersonal and interpersonal factors were also traced by the psychologists that exacerbate college stress and depression. This indicated that stress was a normal part of their everyday life. In this study, college students face many unique forms of stress and the most common was to get good grades, having to juggle schoolwork with other responsibilities, making a decision about future career choice, and developing a variety of new interpersonal relationships. Furr, Westefeld, McConnell & Jenkins (2001) reported that 53% of 1,455 college students labeled themselves as being depressed since starting college and are attributed to academic issues, loneliness, financial difficulties and social relationship problems. Additionally, 9% of them reported having suicidal ideation. Morris, Brooks & May (2003) stated that the perceived stress and stressors unnecessarily consistent across all college students and have been found to differ between traditional and nontraditional students. In the same manner, the present study included the same attributes on academic issues, loneliness, financial and social relationship problems. Archer (2003) said that stress reactions to various situations affect the overall level of a person’s health. One that they felt is always overwhelmed while they eat poorly, sleepless and overwhelmed with stressful events. All the presented literature and studies that deal with stress related to the present study in terms of the feelings and emotions of college students about stressors and the result of these factors affecting them especially in family and peer relationships, while meeting the demands of school related works. Preventive measures to the suspended effects of the presented issues and concerns about students’ health and coping mechanisms to stress made the presentation of the literatures and studies different in the present study.

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

Research Paradigm

This study of factors of stress among undergraduate students in universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK), Pengkalan Chepa Campus is conducted under quantitative research or in other words it is using quantitative method. According to Wikipedia, quantitative research can be interpreted as the empirical investigation of observable situation using statistical, mathematical or computational techniques that is done systematically.

Nature of quantitative research:

Quantitative research involves huge and apparent issues where a study seeks to create an understanding of the different assumptions that have been created in a given study. So, it involves a cycle of successive phases of hypothesis formulation and imagination, patience, and discipline at the planning and design stages. Moreover, the quantitative research needs a measurable data collection, analysis, and interpretation to prove the assumption that has been developed or created in a given study.

Quantitative research also involves statistical tests, which are used to infer on the assumptions that have been developed in the research. Thus, it aims at solving the underlying issues in a more generalised form since the assumptions that are made are developed from a more general perspective.

The quantitative research provides a more detailed consideration of the issues being developed since it does not only outline the special characteristics within a study but also key differences that are considered in making conclusions regarding a study. Scientific and mathematical research must include data analysis where the hypothesis is developed and analysed using statistical approaches.

Characteristics of quantitative research:

  • The data is usually gathered using structured research instruments.
  • The results are based on larger sample sizes that are representative of the population.
  • The research study can usually be replicated or repeated, given its high reliability.
  • Researcher has a clearly defined research question to which objective answers are sought.
  • All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected.
  • Data are in the form of numbers and statistics, often arranged in tables, charts, figures, or other non-textual forms.
  • Project can be used to generalize concepts more widely, predict future results, or investigate causal relationships.
  • Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or computer software, to collect numerical data.

This study is suitable to be conducted under quantitative research because the study does not intend to create theory but it intends to do research based on the already existed or developed theory. There are already researches similar to this but the researches are either focusing on medical students or conducted at other areas. By using quantitative research, this study can also find out the highest contributor of stress among the factors of stress using the statistical method with SPSS Statistics. So, it shows that using quantitative method for this study is relevant as this study involves and uses numerical data to come up with the findings with some literature review as support.

Data

The data used for this study is primary data and secondary data.

Primary data

Primary data is data gained from the field.

  • Source of data
  • The primary data will be gained from the respondents of the study which are the undergraduate students in Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Pengkalan Chepa Campus.

  • Instrument of data collection
  • Instrument that this study used to collect the primary data is questionnaire (survey).

  • Questions for primary data collection
  • Questions that is used for primary data collection is structured questions. This means that a uniform set of questions is used for primary data collection and each respondent will answer the same set of questions. This particular type of questions is used to ensure the uniformity of questions asked, with the hope of gaining uniform set of answer

  • Sample
  • Sample consists of 120 business undergraduate students in universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Pengkalan Chepa Campus.

    Secondary data

    Secondary data could be found in the resources of previous study. It is also referred to as table data, which means that the data could be gained through looking into references available

  • Sources of data
  • The data for this type of data could be gained from references available that are related to the study. Besides, It is the data that have been collected by other people and have been made available from various sources such as book, journal, and article. The source of data is also online or electronic such as website.

Relationship between primary and secondary data

There is relationship between primary and secondary data for quantitative research used in this study. First, secondary data will be gathered first in order to provide the researcher with the suitable theory or theories which are to be tested. Second, primary data will be gained in order to prove or reject the theories selected. Third, theories provided by the secondary data will either be confirmed or rejected using the primary data gathered in general.

Sampling

The type of sampling that will be used in the research is probability. Probability sampling is referring to the sampling that is selected based on certain group of respondent(s) that have been determined for the research. In most cases, generally, the probability sampling is selected in order to gain general knowledge from the group of respondent(s) specified which is suitable for this study. The method that is used under probability sampling for this study is simple random sampling. Simple random sampling is a technique where a subset of individuals (a sample) is chosen from a larger set (a population). Each individual is chosen randomly and entirely by chance, such that each individual has the same probability of being chosen at any stage during the sampling process, and each subset of k individuals has the same probability of being chosen for the sample as any other subset of k individuals. This means that the respondents chosen among business undergraduate students from UMK Pengkalan Chepa will be random and unknown.

Data analysis

The data analysis method used for this study to analyze the data is deductive. This particular type of data is meant for the theory testing type of research, which is commonly used for quantitative type of research. This means deductive method is suitable to be used for this study as this study is under quantitative research. The analysis will begin with the selection of theory that intended to be tested. After that, hypothesis either has been constructed or selected to be used as the hypothesis for the research. Next, primary data collection will be conducted afterward. Lastly, the theory will be tested, in term of acceptance or rejection based on the nature of the research, by using the primary data collected. The deductive approach is when a hypothesis is developed from an already existing theory. The deductive method is used when the researcher studies what others have done, reads existing theories and then tests hypothesis that emerge from those theories. The deductive method is used for this study because this study (quantitative research) researches what others have done, based on the existing theories, test hypothesis that emerge from those theories and is not involved in creating new theory at all.

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