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This chapter includes basic background knowledge of research explaining the key elements of information which is the foundation for the study. The inclusion of reasons for conducting this research are discussed and a methodology write up as an introductory part of study is included and also incorporates a brief summary of limitations that came across in this research and a list of definitions for key word also included. Marriage refers as a “Mithaq” means a solemn covenant between a wife and a husband and this agreement would be in writing. In Islam and the Quran marriage is a contract. Since an agreement can only be reach in between two parties if they give free consent and such statement make clear that such a contract cannot be relate to children. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights declares that both these individuals must take this decision with a consent at legitimate age.
Marriage is a pleasurable bond, a promise to live, matrimony of love and respect in between two souls. The aim of living a satisfying life gets ruined and however the way life thought to live doesn’t exist now and this all becomes reality when a child both a girl and boy forcibly subjected to do early marriage as UNICEF defined early marriage as Child Marriage if a marriage is practicing before the age of 18. UNICEF define early marriage that occur before the age of 18 years or Early marriages are defined as marriages under the age of eighteen. In a condition that an individual to be able to make own self think includes abstract thought process, take decisions and to let live life by taking responsibilities, individual should require to have certain level of mental and spiritual maturity which is physiologically equal to period which will continues till the age of eighteen. Marriage is encountered as a moment of celebration or a milestone in individual’s life but early marriages give no such reason for celebration and, a term child marriage is used to define as marriage or union that take place before 18 years of age, endangers the life trajectories of young girls in many ways, United Nation Children’s Fund (UNICEF) reported that up to 3% of girls before the age of 15 get married in Pakistan and 21% are married before turn to 18. These are the current statistics of the Pakistan Demographics and Health Survey done in 2012-1013.
Child Marriage are forced marriage as one or both the partners without giving consent or marry without giving right to refuse.1956 Supplementary Slavery Convention called Child Marriage as Child slavery. Supplementary Slavery Convention recognize the following actions relating to females in context to marriage related to slavery and all have been reported in Child Marriage. The decision taking to promise or giving a female without giving her an authority to say no by her spouse or parents or in consideration with some financial incentives or in case of widow inheritance or associated that female with some values. The Law of child protection (3rd July 2005) said that, a child is a person who didn’t turn eighteen or even if he/she reached stage. UNICEF reported that woman aged 20 to 24 who were married before they were 18 year. A boy and a girl both victimized but girls get affected most as it takes away their emotional, physical and mental wellbeing and limits their childhood and decision making ability and mobility.
· Child Marriages is a serious violation of young girls human rights deeply rooted in
Pakistani culture, customs and traditional practices.
· In Spite of being illegal by international law, this practice continues and strongly entrenched in sociocultural norms and continue to rob young girl’s childhood. Millions of girls depriving from their basic rights to health, to educate and to empower. Child Marriages denies young girl’s rights to make decisions for their health and wellbeing.
· A framework is needed that would facilitate better to advocates and understand policies and laws that perpetuate Child Marriages.
· In Pakistan Child Marriages incident rates are unknown because of the complexity of this issues and it may often shrouded at provincial level in a wall of silence.
· Child Marriage is a global issue that occur across countries, religions, ethnicities and cultures. Young girls victimized in every region throughout the world.
· If Child Marriages not reduced, around the world, cruel number of women who married as child will increase by 1.2 billion by 2050.In developing countries one in three girls get to married before the age of 18.today more than 700 million women were married as Child. The main objective for doing this research was to explore the immense long existed rationales of Child Marriage practicing in Pakistan. It analyze various religious, social, cultural, traditional, behavioral, economic and political aspects.
· To determine the prevalence and embedded trends of Child Marriage.
· To determine the causes exhibiting Child Marriage.
· To determine and comment on the implication and consequences related to Child Marriages.
Very little research has been done on Child marriage prevailing causes and implication in Pakistan. This lack of research creating a knowledge gap that directly affects the work of governmental authorities and policy makers. With this present analysis will enable experts to necessitate to have more understanding of Child Marriage drivers across the globe. In December 2013 World Health Organization arranged meeting of group of experts in alliance with Girls not Bride and UNICEF to identify areas for research and addresses knowledge gap areas. Participants discussed them in relation to following areas
· Inter and intra country dissimilarity in child marriage trends and prevalence: It’s a globalize issue with varying rates within and among different countries. Researchers reported to explore specific segmented analysis in order to address diversity relating to Ethnicity, Geography, socio-economic and educational aspects
· Child Marriage consequences: As it is associated with early pregnancies (births to adolescent’s incidence are around 90% globally in context to child marriage) and child marriage evidence based impact on neonatal, child health and reproductive is expanding. Low level of understanding raising the consequences of domestic violence and mental health issues contributing developmental, gender and social equity outcomes
· Ways to Prevent Child Marriage in Effective Way: In 2011 ICRW done with systematic review of intervention give evidences that how this dilemma should we deal with but limited evaluations found with small number of countries but experts need to have some more attention to rethink how to react to many different drivers of this offensive act and scale more effective program to deal with There is no rigorous data available in Pakistan to make an estimate on number of child marriages as very few cases reported to police and governmental authorities does not menace this actTo identify the gaps associated with Child Marriages incidences and to propose a framework what we should need to do to fill this gap is required.To highlight the contributing factors related to government, society, culture, socioeconomic status and education and propose a framework as an action plan to overcome with it, so that government and regulatory bodies reframe laws and make policies that will help to restructured this problem. The research will be done in slums of Karachi, Pakistan.
Definitions of key words using in this research are as follows,
Poverty: It depends on your access to social services and on income level. In 1995 United Nation World Summit For Social Development define poverty is a state designated by rigorous deprivation of an individual basic human needs such as Health, education, food, shelter, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities. The World Bank describe an individual living on less than with US$ 1.90 per day and defines moderate poverty with less than US$ 3.10 per day. Child Marriages: In 2009 UNICEF define early marriage that occur before the age of 18 years It can be defined as a future action or reasoning evolved with Child Marriages while making any logical judgment that can be the basis for circumstantial evidence.
Social Class: Homogenous group of individuals living in a society practicing common social values having similar life interest with enjoying equal position of respect in a society which is being constructed on conceptual structures education, occupation, income and place of residence. Social class can be categorized in Pakistan as Upper Class, Middle Class and Lower Class based on income levels. For income level of Rs 4,000 and less than 25,000were categorized as lower class.For income level of Rs 25,000 to 65,000 less per month were categorized as middle class. For income level of Rs 65,000 to 250,000 per month were categorized as Upper class.
Family Honor: The stigma and family distress attached with parents and spouse to premarital sex and child bearing before marriage
Social pressure: Define as if a girls left unmarried by the age 15 villagers, neighbors and family naive start making doubt her chastity and health well-being.
Haq Mehr: It is defined as the amount of money which the wife is entitled for by her husband in Islam.
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