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Various former studies have shown that the dentin wall was covered with smear layer after mechanical shaping of the root canals with instrument. Disregarding of the controversy over retaining the smear layer it has been recognized that the smear layer itself may be infected and may protect the bacteria within the dentinal tubules. Smear layer not only contains organic components but also have inorganic component in the form of dentin chips etc. The penetration of intracanal disinfectants and sealers into dentinal tubules were prevented by smear layer, which affects the final seal of the root canal filling.
Irrigants are paramount for complete debridement of the root canals with mechanical procedures. There is no single potent solution is appropriate for removing both organic and inorganic parts of the smear layer. To eliminate this smear layer mix of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and strong chelating agent such as EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) is recommended. It has been proposed by Crumpton et al that complete evacuation of smear layer can be achieved by 17% EDTA for 1min followed by 5.25% NaOCl. Till now there is no single solution which can disinfect the root canal system as well as remove the smear layer. On the other hand the application of strong chelating agent like EDTA for more than minute and 1ml of volume has been reported to be associated with dentinal erosion.
SmearClear (Sybron Endo, Orange, CA) is a product introduced for eliminating the smear layer. It contains 17% EDTA solution in conjunction with a cationic (Cetrimide) and an anionic surfactant.
SmearOFF (Vista Detal Products) is Proprietary EDTA and Chlrohexidine mix. It is prepared with combination of wetting agents and surface modifiers for best outcomes. These solutions are used only as final rinse.
Etridonic acid which is soft chelating agent appears to have a nominal effect on dentine walls yet can still curtail smear layer Lottanti et al. 2009. Etridonic acid (HEBP) can be used in combination with NaOCl without affecting its proteolytic or antimicrobial properties. In contrast to EDTA, Etridonic acid is a weak decalcifying agent and hence cannot be used as a mere final rinse there for it is suggested that HEBP to be mixed with NaOCl to be used as more complete root canal irrigation solution.
Chloroquick (innovationsendo, India) is a combination of NaOCl and HEBP. Chloroquick High contains 18% HEBP and 5.25% NaOCl while Chloroquick Low contains 9% HEBP and 3% NaOCl both be mixed with surfactant tween 80 for complete root canal irrigation solution. There for this study aims to compare the efficacy of continuous soft chelating irrigation protocol with Chloroquick solutions to conventional irrigation protocol on smear layer removal in coronal, middle, and apical thirds of the instrumented root canals.
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