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Imagine a world without forests, it is said that the forest covers 30% of the Earth’s surface, which provides vital habitats for million of spices in this surface we live in. The forest also provides a lot of different important sources, such as clean air and water, without these we will not be able to survive. Forests provide more than a home for a diverse range of living things. One of the major issues that the world is facing is deforestation, what is it? Deforestation is causing a lot of issues in certain areas, the causes can be either direct or indirect. Direct causes are such as floods, fires, tsunami and a lot more of different causes that are occurring in today’s world. Indirect causes are insufficient political actions and governance failure as inadequate land tenure system, corruption, wrong public administration investments and more. In this paper our aim is to find out the cause and effects of deforestations, why most of the people destroy nature and how we are going to solve these issues by coming up with plans which would make protecting nature more profitable, not only in a long term story but also in the short term. Brazil is one of the countries that is having a severe effect due to deforestation. Brazil is one of the top 10 countries that are being affected with deforestation. In the later part of the writing we would also be introducing Japan, we are also going to compare Brazil that has high deforestation rate and Japan in which does not have that much of a high deforestation rate.
Deforestation is happening because of humans. Cutting down trees more than planting trees to make paper, timber, products for fuel and more. Agriculture also drives deforestation, farmers clear land for crops or for cattle and often will clear acres of land using slash and burn techniques, cutting down trees and then burning them. Farmers also clears a forest area so that they would be able to use it. Even after them using these ways affects a big part of the forest. However, if this land or areas that have been unused trees will regrow but it takes too much time until it goes back to its original state. Mining also results in deforestation, digging coal, diamond or gold mining is also what we humans do that lead to deforestation. Mining destroys a lot of land soil there are certain countries that are starting to ban mining and it helping lessen deforestation. Deforestation is caused by us humans and by the way we live and it is harmful for the environment.
Since the 1990s, Amazon has transformed into a large-scale agricultural development site for growing soybeans for export. This is because the soy development front, which started in the late 1970s in the Cerrado area on the south side of the Amazon, was evaluated as a great success, and the “soybean development front” continued northward to Amazon. There is a law that says, in the legal Amazon region, 80% of the farm area must be left as forest, but this is rarely followed. In addition, national projects such as the construction of huge hydroelectric power plants and gold mine developments, activities such as illegal timber harvesters and illegal gold miners called Garimpeiro are also seriously destroying forests and polluting rivers. This is the factor of the Brazil’s deforestation. It is said that Amazon has already lost 15% of its original area through these development and destruction activities. According to a report from the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research that implements the “Amazon Forest Deforestation Satellite Monitoring Project” using observation satellites, the total area of Amazon forest loss in Brazil since the start of observation in 1988 is the land area of Japan. It was 420,000 km, equivalent to 1.1 times, and the disappearance rate reached 8.4%. Amazon, which has lost its forests on a large scale, is now rapidly drying. The new administration, which was established in January 2019, has promoted the Amazon business in the Amazon as one of the important policies, and there is great concern about the “desertification” of the Amazon due to further large-scale development. The depletion of water resources is a life and death issue for agriculture, and sustainable economic activities are required.
The situation between Japan and Brazil may be vastly different since considering the geographical, economical, and cultural aspects. However, Japan was one of the famous nation which has successfully managed to prevent deforestation. Three hundred years ago, Japan was facing rapid deforestation that was turning the nation’s landscape into a wasteland. Community management of village forests was the only way to solve and prevent deforestation that launched a new era of professional silviculture which spread from village to village, restoring Japan’s forests. This chapter will focus on how Japan has managed to save its forests and this chapter will find a possible solution and adapt to the ongoing problem in the amazon. The problem Japan was facing was similar what brazil is facing right now. Short term economic benefit. The villagers in Japan were able to have access to clean and reliable water supply for rice fields and household use when they cut down trees. Exploitative use of forest was also an issue which triggered Japan’s deforestation since Japanese logs had high quality and was useful when constructing houses and military vessels. Japan has responded to this issue and tackled from political governance and local villagers efforts. The politic sides covered the loop holes which made it possible to export logs from Japan and the local villagers has started plant trees.
Currently, the number of animals is decreasing due to the limiting factors and human factors. In the natural world, availability of food, water, shelter and space changes animal population. These limiting factors can be caused by global change or human invasion into the forest. Humans develop their lands to build houses and buildings, cut down trees and changes animal habitats. Some animals such as raccoons and skunks, can adopt, but others cannot.
In the Sumatran, orangutans are critically endangered, and the number of the population are estimated that in the past 75 years, orangutan population has decreased by up to 80 percent. This population decrease issue is made out by human factors. Human kills the forest to make money by hunting orangutans and clearing out palm oil plantation. This situation is caused because of hard labor and low income. There are organizations such as, Sumatran Orangutan Society (SOS), Australian Orangutan Project (AOP) and Sumatran Orangutan Conservation Programme (SOCP). These organizations are trying their best to ensure preservation of the habitat and safety of the orangutans in Sumatra.
The book focuses on REDD(Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries) on forest-themed climate change. The article is divided into eight parts. Part 1 talking about climate change and deforestation in Latin America. Part 2 and 3 talk about REDD and how it works. This part is important to understand what REDD is. Part 3 and 4 talk about how governments in Latin America respond to REDD. Part 6 and 7 talk about forest diversity. The contents are the economy, society and government. The final Part8 conclude this book by discussing the benefits of protecting forests and how society develops. Currently, it is said that greenhouse gas emissions accompanying deforestation and land use change account for 20% of the total, and it is important to prevent global warming by preventing forest loss and degradation in developing countries. The impact of climate change on the remaining forests is also severe. Rain does not fall in the rainforest and forest fires may increase in coniferous forests. Climate change not only has a devastating effect on forest biodiversity, but also has an impact on those who rely on forests for their daily lives. Forests have a very important impact on the fight against global warming. By reducing forest loss, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced, carbon is absorbed, ecosystem services are maintained, and the primary forest that is most likely to withstand and adapt to climate change is maintained. This book is very important for understanding deforestation, climate change and its deterrence. This will be very helpful to answer our questions that what is important to solve deforestation. In addition, there is no statement about how to solve the deforestation problem, but it talks about the merits of solving it. This can be a clear basis for the solution.
This article will be talking about forest policy and economics and how Brazil and Indonesia have used these system. Deforestation in both countries have been increasing for years and in this phase both of the countries would be facing a lot of issues adding the one that there are facing at the moments. The goal that is to find what policy has been made or is being made to reduce deforestation and to learn from what they have been through. Deforestation is a significant global issue that a lot of different countries are facing and Indonesia is estimated to be the most significant global producer of illegal timber. The government of Indonesia has committed in reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. However Indonesia is still facing a lot of illegal logging and illegal land clearing. Brazil is also a country similarly facing these kinds of issues. However brazil was rather successful in implementing policies to reduce illegal deforestation. Brazil has a mix policy instruments in place to manage forests. The mix policy includes law enforcement, indigenous territories, protected areas and more. Brazil government has focused a lot on solving the forest deforestation in which they were also being supported by the Amazon fund, which can receive REDD plus related performance based contributions, with the main financial contributor so far being norway. In comparing both countries we could see the difference. In Indonesia there are trying to fix forest deforestation, however it does not see to go as plan. While in Brazil there government seems to focus on solving forest clearing, deforestation and by doing this they get support from other countries as well. This is not just a lesson for Indonesia to learn from, it is also for other countries that are facing deforestation and forest clearing.
The amazon forest is known to contain half of the worlds rainforests and a quarter of all fauna. The rainforest is also essential for controlling the climate change. If deforestation keeps on growing we would lose the rainforest and if we would lose the rainforest, global warming would cause a lot of damage to this world. This article is about environmental science and policy in Brazil. Its aims are to analyze the influence of the recent Brazilian political change demonstrating like the measures taken by former president Meichel Temer and the other campaign. President Jair Bolosonaro threatened on the conservation of the amazon forest, both in the short and long term. In our group this is one aspect that were are planning to solve on, on both short and long term not by threatening . The increase in deforestation rates in the recent years may be related to the economic crisis. With fewer resources to control the amazon region. President Jair Bolsornaro being the president of Brazil, is noticeable that he is planning and making environmental issues outside the political debate. Both in the short and long term it would be seen that the rainforest would be in great consequences, if ever the current brazilian rulers are not rethought and the environmental risk tends to be raising and would be bringing harmful damages not just to the forests but throughout their society and there countries, ini which that would scatter and would start to be involving neighboring countries. The future of even might be ours are at the risk of the amazon forest is going to a bargaining tool for the various brazilian political interests. Brazil should play a fundamental role in ensuring that deforestation rates in the region on not return. In which that they should act cautiously and have more concern about the environment.
This journal written by professor Tsukamoto (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology) mainly focuses on whether protecting wildlife is possible when at the same time aiming for economic prosperity. This journal has provided several case studies of famous deforestations in China, Africa, and Latin America, also provides case studies which managed to sustain its forests such as Japan and Germany. Not only does this journal focuses on case studies, but it also focuses on theoretical point of view of how the idea of “Forest protection” was born in the United States, and historical point of view from V.G.Carter who discusses the relation of civilization and deforestation.
Considering our groups topic which is deforestation in the amazon due to economic expansion by the Brazilian government, this journal has provided numerous opinions form multiple points of perspectives on how complex the relation between economic expansion and environmental protection as the journal claims that ‘In history, there was no civilization which managed to balance prosperity and forest conservation. Human history was a circle of prosperity while destruction of the environment and destruction of the civilization due to natural disasters.’. The famous Greek philosopher Plato described the effects of soil degradation and deforestation on the peninsula of Attica.
Looking at the world affairs in recent years, most of the people are now discussing whether human security and prosperity can cohabit with protecting global environment. According to professor Tsukamoto, most of the issue’s human kinds face in the 21st century cannot be discussed without considering the environmental issues. Population, food, energy, and poverty are now considered as an environmental issue. This shows how complex the issue has become in the 21st century where we have to consider all of the issues which human kinds face when we talk about environment.
The Impacts of Oil Palm on Recent Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss.This article aimed to reduce tropical deforestation-free sources of palm oil. Oil palm has been widely traded in global society. In Malaysia, oil palm is used as an important ingredient in processed foods such as margarine, ice cream, coffee, coffee cream and shortening, as a substitute for cocoa butter in confectionery and chocolates. Palm oil is the most commonly used oil in general households and is used in a wide range of cooking methods such as fried foods. Knowing the essential use of palm oil, human beings are leading deforestation, human right issues, forest fires and global warming. These are all leading to a serious issue among global society and biodiversity. This article founded the rates of forest loss for palm oil production across a range of countries and continents and raising concerns of oil palm plantations.
After learning all the issues and how palm oils are affecting the biodiversity, I firstly thought about the orangutans. Over usage of palm oil creates deforestation which are animals living. Currently in Malaysia, there are many orangutans in protection by organizations. Orangutans already had the livings in forests. However, tropical forests have been cut down on a large scale to cultivate oil palm (the raw material for palm oil) and transformed into oil palm plantations. These movements leaded to an issue where orangutans appear in the oil palm plantation to find foods. Even though they are just wanting foods to survive, it is common for farmers to treat orangutans as pests. As I mentioned above, palm oil widely used from its versatility. Palm oil can be used for various products such as bread, sweets and detergents. In addition, it can produce a crisp and crunchy texture in foods. Palm oil is more productive than other vegetable oils and its yields are extremely high. Moreover, one of the attractions of palm oil is its low costs. Nevertheless, there must be a solution for orangutans and other tropical forests animals to survive and live with the nature.
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