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Corporate identity and branding

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The owner of the business Davaoeña Dormitel is situated at Davao City, thus the business is named as such. In understanding Davao City, it will help the researcher discover the characteristics entails of a resident in the place that will be later on use as basis in building the identity and brand of the company.

According to an article by the Local Government of Davao City, the beginnings of Davao as a discrete geopolitical entity started during the last fifty years of Spanish rule in the country. The original name of Davao was Nueva Vergara. It was renamed “Davao” when the Bagobo origins namely the Tagabawa called the river located in the place as “Dabo”, the Giangan or Diangan called it “Dawaw”, and the Obo who called it “Davah”. Henceforth, the pioneer Christian residents officially adopted the name “Davao” in 1868 as name of the place.

One interesting feature of Davao is that inhabitants of the place make a visitor or newcomer feel at home. Davaoweños have absorb the religious doctrines and teaching in their early contact with Spanish missionaries, the pragmatism, punctuality and promptness by the Americans, the determination, cooperation and devotion to duty of the Japanese, traits which combined to develop a helpful, hardworking, sympathetic and kind people in the present generation of Davaoweño.

It is also highlighted in the article that the people of Davao can definitely be trusted, for basically he is a friendly, helpful and understanding person who is highly sympathetic towards those seeking guidance or assistance. Therefore, Davao has rightly claim the honor as the place of beautiful people.

According to another article by One Armed Wanderer (2016), Davao is also known as the home the Philippine Eagle Center. The center is the conservation breeding facility of the Philippine Eagle foundation. It is a home to 35 Philippine Eagles, 18 of which are bred in captivity. The Philippine Eagle or the Monkey-Eating Eagle is locally known as “Haribon” or “Haring Ibon”. It means “Bird King” and it is one of the largest and most powerful forest-dwelling eagles in the world (Philippine Eagle Center, 2012).

Therefore, this article will help the researcher in understanding Davao City and the Philippine Eagle because it is where the basis of the name of the business as well as its current symbol.

Student Housing Facility/Dormitories

Olujimi and Bello (2009) states that housing facilities can be defined as rooms furnished with amenities, suitable to house social activities and indicative of a certain lifestyle. In the UNESCO data, the British Council reported that there were about 170 million tertiary students worldwide in year 2009, a 160% increase from 65 million in 1990 (British Council, 2012). Due to the increasing number of students, many private rented housing was established to accomodate students (Smith, 2005). The primary purpose of a ideal dormitory is to provide students with a healthy dorm environment where they can study, rest, have a good time, socialize (Navarez, 2017).

Amole (2009) said that satisfaction with student housing is an important indicator in evaluating the quality of student living environments. Amole (2009) also included that confidence, association with noteworthy individuals, financial status, and lodging condition predict understudy life fulfillment (Chow, 2005). Hassanain (2008) said a well planned student housing facility promotes desirable educational outcomes and help to achieve the broader objectives such as social cohesion and responsible citizenship. Student housing should comprises of basic bedroom units, bathrooms, toilets, laundry, kitchens, common lounges and cafeterias (Amole, 2009). Moreover, each unit should have following furniture allocated for each student such as bed with used cushion, study table and chair, and locker for storage (Velasquez-Garcia & Garcia, 2016). Dormitories should allow also social-cultural and sport activities as they contribute to students’ social and environmental education (Navarez, 2017).

According to Brilliantes et al. (2012), proximity and affordability are the two most important factors in considering a dormitory or boarding house among Filipino university students. Quality education is not only limited to the classroom experience but it also extends to the students’ interaction with the different non-academic personnel and components in the university. Researcher have supported that dormitory facilities are built to generate greater degrees of active and collaborative learning, potential for increased interaction with other students of different backgrounds and beliefs, and easy access to the campus programs which directly support the educational and social goals of the university (Brandon et al., 2008; Hassanain, 2008; Willoughby et al., 2009). Navarez (2017) concludes that crowded or a space that movement is minimal can affect the privacy of the students and can cause unsatisfactory to a dormitory.

Navarez (2017) said that students needs counseling in order to assist them in the psychosocial adjustments they are experiencing as they live away from home. Navarez (2017) also added that aside from counseling, creation of learning programs and offering of learning sessions that will enhance students’ cognitive, affective, and behavioral competencies can also contribute to achieving a satisfying student residential experience.

A dormitory should be well-built according to the needs of the occupants. Kilicaslan (2013) said that the relationship of man to the built environment surrounding them is significantly important in terms of design action. Kilicaslan (2013) that a key factor that helps in creating and maintaining a new environment is relationships between people and their environment. In addition, living spaces are places in which individual environmental communication is most intensively perceived.

Navarez (2017) also cited that in dormitory buildings where students having different cultures, values, and habits live a common life by keeping together, spaces should be designed so as to make them feel at home. Moreover, the dormitory rooms are supposed to provide students with required physical conditions and also spaces for spare time activities.

Role of Corporate Identity and Branding in Davaoeña Dormitel

Corporate Identity

An identity of a company is important because it will help differentitate a business from another business. Studies suggest that every organization regardless of size has a corporate identity (Abimbola and Kocak, 2007; Abimbola & Vallaster, 2007; Balmer, 2012, 2010). In a book by Jenkins (2002), the author explained that corporate identity reveals what the organisation is, what it stands for, what it does, how it does, and where it is going. A corporate identity was widely recognized as an effective strategic instrument and means to achieve competitive advantage (Gray and Smeltzer, 1985; Schmidt, 1995). The purpose of corporate identity is to gain competitive advantage as customers identify all parts the business, such as social, cultural, and ethical policies not just the product and servies of the company thus, corporate identity is an indicator on where a business should stand in the business society. Corporate identity is also widely regarded as a valuable means of increasing the company’s sales of products or services (Dowling, 1994).

Corporate identity is managed by two steps which are the the endorsement and spreading of a company’s mission, vision and philosophy internally and externally and the planning, implementation and maintenance of corporate visual identity systems, marketing communication activities and behavioural forms in order to externalise company values. Maurya et al. (2015) cited that most scholars concludes that organizations interests in corporate identity because it can help in organizations differentiate themselves in the increasingly competitive environment and it can also secure many benefits in the market place. According to many, the benefits of a strong and positive corporate identity could boost employee motivation, hire and retain high quality employees, provides a strong base for organisational culture, increase transparency of business, develop better relationships with other businesses and aids investment into the company (Melewar and Karaosmanoglu, 2005). Moreover, a lack of corporate identity leads to many disadvantages (Ackerman, 1984).

Mousiolis and Bourletidis (2015) said that corporate social responsibility affects the identity of a corporation, the sensitivities of the organization upon social matters, critical decisions of the management regarding social matters and how it affects the corporate identity after its implementation.

CORPORATE PERSONALITY

A corporate personality is also a part of corporate identity. (Bernstein, 1984) emphasised that every organisation has a personality based on its corporate philosophy, culture and core values reflected in its mission and vision statements Abratt, 1989) and link it to visual identity to strategy Olins, 1989). Ind 1990) and Gray and Smeltzer 1985) regarded corporate identity as an expression and an integral part of strategy. Corporate personality also express the corporate mission inside and outside the organization (Maurya et al., (2015). Through corporate personality, a corporate can achieve unique charasteristic and achieve its own identification and status on the market.

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

Corporate social responsibility is not just an advertisement but it creates impact to the identity of the organization. One contribution of corporate social responsibility is it contributes in attaining the competitive advantaged that will influence the attitudes of stakeholders. Employees are one of the key stakeholders in corporate social responsibility. The attitudes of the employees have an important effect to the firms. According to Rupp (2006), if companies act irresponsibly, it will reduce employees identification resulting to a negative reactions to the company thus affect the identity of the company. Organizations also with strong corporate social responbility programs will attract to high quality employees and thus will retain (Turban & Greening 1997, Fombrun & Van Riel 2004). Therefore, the development and implementation of a corporate social strategy will help the management create a moral image of the firm and provide more credits and the corporate social responsibility policies will have a strong impact in the identity of a corporation.

There are elements that can affect the social responsibility of a corporation Therefore, understanding elements that will affect these responsibilities is necessary in developing a corporate identity. Maurya et al., (2015) said that corporate design, corporate communication, corporate culture, industry identity and strategy contributes to an identity of an organization by focusing on managing symbolism, behavior and communication. Therefore, there are seven elements of corporate identity namely corporate design, corporate communication, corporate culture, corporate structure, corporate philosophy, industry identity and corporate strategy. Understanding each component will give a wider view on the factors that will affect the identity of company. The elements are further elaborated below.

CORPORATE DESIGN

Corporate design covers all elements of corporate visual presentation. Corporate design is usually consist of logo, colours, font of characters, symbols and slogan (Poliak et al., 2013). Corporate design brings originality and its means it influence emotions. Thus, corporate design is a very strong communication tool because it is the visual aspects that elaborate a message.

CORPORATE COMMUNICATION

Another element of a corporate identity is corporate communication. Corporate communication embodies all elements of communications such as corporate design, internal and external architecture, advertising, public relations, key position, communication with corporate employees, sales, behaviour of representative, advertising brochures and such. arketing communication is associated with promotional communication and it aims to create a favourable image for products and services that promotes to the overall image of the organization (Barich and Kotler, 1991; van Riel, 1995). Moreover, the elements of marketing communication include advertising, personal selling, public and sales promotion.

CORPORATE CULTURE

Another element mentioned in the study that is significant in building a corporate identity is corporate culture. Corporate culture is the beliefs and values that influences behavior of the stakeholdes in the organization (Vella & Melewar, 2008). Corporate social responsibility practices influence corporate culture, consisting of the attitudes, values, beliefs, norms and customs of an organization. In addition, a positive image of an organization contributes to a stronger identity (Dutton, 1994).

CORPORATE STRUCTURE

Corporate structure is as well a fundamental component of corporate identity. Corporate structure refers to the fundamental industry that features such as competitiveness, size and rates of change which can influence the identity of a company. Corporate structure is then followed by the corporate strategy.

CORPORATE PHILOSOPHY

Corporate philosophy is associated with the core values and assumptions of a company. Corporate values are concerned with the moral principles and beliefs that guides the company’s culture (Gray and Balmer, 1997). The corporate mission pertains the reason of existence of the business (Abratt, 1989; Ind, 1992). Furthermore, corporate mission is an important source of differentiation from other organisations.

CORPORATE VISUAL IDENTITY

On the other hand, corporate visual identity is the visuals designed by the organisation to differentiate a business from other businesses. Visual identity can be conveyed through the location and architecture of the building of the business to impart identity (Schmitt et al., 1995). Moreover, visual identity include advertising, clothing, packaging, promotion and giveaways. In addition, corporate culture is associated with the values that support the corporate identity of a business (Abratt, 1989).

CORPORATE STRATEGY

Corporate strategy is the blueprint of the firms fundamental objectives and strategies. It determines what the company produces, level of profit made and stakeholder perceptions about the company. Corporate strategy lies within the personality of the organisation and corporate identity is the expression. Thus, corporate strategy is also relevant in understanding corporate identity (Gray and Balmer, 1998; Gray and Smeltzer, 1985; Ind, 1992; Kiriakidou and Millward 2000).

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