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Financial inclusion is emerging as a new standard of economic growth that plays major role in driving away the poverty from the country. It refers to delivery of banking services to masses including privileged and disadvantaged group of people at an affordable terms and conditions. Financial inclusion is an important priority of the country in terms of economic growth and advancement of the society. It enables to reduce the gap between rich and poor society. In the current scenario financial institutions are the robust pillars of progress, economic growth and development of the economy. The present study aims to examine the impact of financial inclusion on growth of the economy over a period of seven years. Secondary data is used which has been analyzed by multiple regression model as a main statistical tool. Results of the study found positive and significant impact of number of bank branch and Credit deposit ratio on GDP of the country, whereas an insignificant impact has been observed in case of ATMs growth on Indian GDP.
India is a country of 1.2 billion people, spread across 29 states and seven union territories. There are around 600,000 villages and 640 districts in our country. A vast majority of the population, especially in rural areas, is excluded from the easy access to finance .40% of the households having bank accounts, but only 38% of the 117,200 branches of scheduled commercial banks are working in rural areas. Accessibility of financial services at affordable and appropriate prices has been always a global issue. Hence, an inclusive financial system is widely required not only in India, but has become a policy priority in various countries. So, RBI has been continuously stimulating the banking sector to extend the banking network both by setting up of new branches and installation of new ATMs.
Definition: Financial Inclusion is defined as “the process of ensuring access to financial services and timely and adequate credit where needed by vulnerable groups such as weaker sections and low income groups at an affordable cost”. During April 2012, World Bank carried out a study which revealed that only 9 per cent individuals’ avails new loans from banks in the previous year and 35 per cent population are having formal bank accounts in India whereas in the case of developing economies it is 41 per cent.
Concept of Financial Inclusion :Financial inclusion means the delivery of financial services, including banking services and credit, at an affordable cost to the vast sections of disadvantaged and low-income groups who tend to be excluding .Financial inclusion takes into account the participation of vulnerable groups such as weaker sections of the society and low income groups, based on the extent of their access to financial services such as savings and payment account, credit insurance, pensions etc. The aim of Financial Inclusion (FI) is to make easy access of financial services to the large underprivileged population of the country. In order to reap the benefits of the financial services, lot of measures has been taken by Government of India in the favour of poor and neglected section of the society.
The different financial services include access to savings, loans, insurance, payments and remittance facilities offered by the formal financial system. This aspect of financial inclusion is of vital importance in providing economic security to individuals and families. India is one country where the Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC) have a specific mandate for financial inclusion and financial literacy. There is a separate Technical Group on Financial Inclusion and Financial Literacy under the aegis of FSDC with representation from all the financial sector regulators. In order to spearhead efforts towards greater financial inclusion, RBI has constituted a Financial Inclusion Advisory Committee (FIAC) under the Chairmanship of a Deputy Governor from RBI.
Dangi and Kumar (2013) examined the initiatives and policy measures taken by RBI and Government of India. This study also focused on current status and future prospects of financial inclusion in India. It has been concluded that financial inclusion shows progressive and valuable changes but sufficient provisions should be incorporate in the business model to certify that the poor are not driven away from banking.
Suryanarayana (2008) focused on definition of inclusion/exclusion with reference to an outcome scenario for broad-based growth as reflected in estimates of production, income, and consumption distribution. The study helps in drawing a sketch of occupational, social, regional profiles of the excluded in the mainstream growth process. Hence researcher made an attempt to provide a perspective, a measure of inclusion, and finally an evaluation based on the available estimates of consumption distribution for the year 2004–2005 for India.
Agrawal (2008) studied the financial inclusion from the behavioral perspective based on both factors supply and demand end. Results revealed that evaluation from the behavioral perspective provided the scope for the policy-makers and marketers to strategically align.
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