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Soil Contamination is a big problem in the environment, people have to know what the consequences are if they do not take care the environment. Nature is the most important thing in life we need a good environment for living, we must be aware and avoid contaminated soil, we have to realize that we are damaging ourselves when using pesticides in agriculture, this brings serious consequences, not only to crops, but also to animals, plants and humans. For that reason we must take care of what surrounds us, we must think about the future, our children who are the most important in our lives. many times we do not think about the damage that can cause using chemicals for crops, perhaps due to lack of information, then our duty is to find solutions to not continue destroying the soil, one of the important things would be to reduce the use of pesticides that would help the soil Another important thing is not to use plastic bags, urban activities affect plants and animal species.
Soil pollution may be any chemicals or contaminants that harm living organism. Pollutants decrease soil quality and also disturb the soil’s natural composition and also lead to erosion of soil. Types of soil pollution can be distinguished by the source of the contaminant and its effects of the ecosystem. Types of soil pollution may be agricultural pollution, industrial wastes and urban activities. “The soil is the great connector of lives, the source and destination of all. It is the healer and restorer and resurrect or, by which disease passes into health, age into youth, death into life. Without proper care for it we can have no community, because without proper care for it we can have no life.”
― Wendell Berry, the Unsettling of America: Culture and Agriculture
“The use of pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides) is increasing a large portion of the pesticides applied to control pests and weeds eventually finds its way into the soil, which acts as a reservoir for these residues. Inappropriate pesticide application can also lead to off-target contamination due to spray drift and run-off from plants, causing contamination of the soil. From the soil, pesticide residues enter into the bodies of invertebrates, get trans-ported into water or air or are broken down into innocuous substances. The effectiveness of a pesticide as well as the hazards of its harmful residues depend largely on the duration for which a pesticide remains in the soil. For example, has half-life of three years in cultivated soils, while organophosphate insecticides persist for only a few days or months. A grouping of pesticides based on persistence in soil has been provided in Table 15. The chlorinated hydrocarbons persist longer in soils having a large amount of organic matter, although more amount of the chemical must be applied to these soils to killpests. Insecticides persist longer if worked into the soil than if left on the surface. Herbicides applied to soils may not persist at all or may persist for very short durations, depending on the individual compound. Ultimately, pesticides disappear because of evaporation and vapor-inaction, leaching, plant uptake, chemical and mi-crucial decomposition, and photodecomposition. When a pesticide enters the soil, some of it is adsorbed to soil particles, particularly organic matter, and some gets dissolved and mixed with the soil water. As more water enters the soil through rain or irrigation, the adsorbed pesticide molecules may be desorbed from soil particles. One of the most useful in-dices for quantifying pesticide adsorption on soils is the partition coefficient (Markagraf, 2018)
The problem of soil contamination is that it is capable of negatively affecting the communities that develop on them and can pass along the food chain, producing a risk to the health of humanity. However, on the other hand, it is essential to take into account the lack of perception of soil contamination, although it is important that some compounds used in agriculture (chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides) cause harm to them. The air that is breathed if it smells bad, or the water that is drunk if it tastes bad, are indicators of the contamination of these media, but contamination of a soil cannot be detected in a short time. The inadequate disposal of hazardous waste in vacant land, warehouses, warehouses and industrial facilities. The leaks of hazardous materials (especially hydrocarbons) and its derivatives) of tanks, underground containers, pipes and pipelines.
Liquidation of hazardous waste in storage sites and in places where hazardous waste management activities are carried out. The spills of chemical substances due to transport accidents. The inadequate disposal of hazardous or solid waste contaminated with these in the final disposal sites for urban solid waste. (Mijangos, 2014)
The mechanisms of interaction of waste with the soil can be categorized as physical,
Chemical and biological. Different processes involved within each category can be schematically shown as depicted in The behavior of wastewater in soil is influenced by the nature of pore spaces and in turn, is governed by the characteristics of mineral particles and organic matter. The accumulation of organic matter in soil as a result of waste application is the prime agent for manipulating the infiltration rate. The residence time of waste constituents increases rapidly with water storage capacity of the soil, thus promoting interaction of wastes with the soil. The retention and transmission of dissolved ions and compounds in wastes are governed by the cation exchange capacity of soil. In fact, the cation exchange capacity is a rough index of all the reactions between charged pollutants and soil colloids. The dissolved ions or com-pounds in wastewaters are retained in soil primarily through adsorption and chemical precipitation (Singh, 2010)
Several problems linking excessive use of fertilizer with environment have been identified. The increase of nitrates in the drinking water, a development about which general public is greatly concerned, and believed to be due to the excessive use of fertilizers and animal
Manures, is regarded as the most important fertilizer-related pollution issue. Nutrient enrichment, eutrophication and deterioration of sur-face-water quality due to transportation of nutrients applied through fertilizers via leaching and/or runoff and sediment erosion is another problem. As the reactive nitrogen can swiftly move across different media of air, soil and water, it can contribute to higher levels of ozone in the lower atmosphere, causing respiratory ailments and damaging vegetation. Apportion of fertilizer nitrogen applied to soil is converted into nitrous oxide which contributes to both the greenhouse effect and stratosphere insecticides persist for only a few days or months. A grouping of pesticides based on persistence in soil has been provided in Table 15. The chlorinated hydrocarbons per-sist longer in soils having a large amount of organic matter, although more amount of the chemical must be applied to these soils to killpests. Insecticides persist longer if worked into the soil than if left on the surface. Herbicides applied to soils may not persist at all or may persist for very short durations, depending on the individual compound. Ultimately, pesticides disappear because of evaporation and vapor-inaction, leaching, plant uptake, chemical and microbial decomposition, and photodecomposition. When a pesticide enters the soil, some of it is adsorbed to soil particles, particularly organic matter, and some gets dissolved and mixed with the soil water. As more water enters the soil through rain or irrigation, the adsorbed pesticide molecules may be desorbed from soil particles. One of the most useful indices for quantifying pesticide adsorption on soils is the partition coefficient. The contamination of the soil supposes the alteration of the terrestrial surface with chemical substances that are harmful for the life in different measure putting in danger the ecosystems and also our health, this alteration of the quality of the earth can obey to very different causes, and of the Similarly, its consequences cause serious health problems that seriously affect the flora and fauna and also human health.
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