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Data Duplication and Cloud Storage

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Data deduplication has been widely used in cloud storage to reduce storage space and communication overhead by eliminating redundant data and storing only one copy for them.In order to achieve secure data deduplication, the convergent encryption scheme and many of its variants are proposed.

However, most of these schemes do not consider or cannot address the efficiently dynamic ownership changes and the secure Proof-of-Ownership (PoW), simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a secure data deduplication scheme with efficient PoW process for dynamic ownership management. Specially, our scheme supports both cross-user file-level and inside-user blocklevel data deduplication. During the file-level deduplication, we construct a new PoW scheme to ensure the tag consistency and achieve the mutual ownership verification. Moreover, we design a lazy update strategy to achieve efficient ownership management.For inside-user block-level deduplication, the user-aided key is used to realize convergent key management and reduce the key storage space. Finally, the security and performance analysis demonstrate that our scheme can ensure data confidentiality and tag consistency, and it is efficient in data ownership management.

The great flexibility and economic savings of cloud computing motivate companies and individuals to outsource their data to the cloud server. According to the analysis report of IDC, the volume of data in the world will exceed 44 ZB in 2020. With the fast growth of data volumes stored in the cloud server, it is urgent to develop new techniques to use the storage space and network bandwidth efficiently. To achieve this, data deduplication has received much attention from both academia and industry. For example, Dropbox, SpiderOak,and GoogleDrive have employed data deduplication technique to reduce the storage cost and save the network bandwidth with client-side deduplication. On the one hand, deduplication techniques take advantage of data similarity (file-level/blocklevel) to identify the same data and to reduce the storage space by storing only one single copy in the cloud server. On the other hand, from the security perspective, the shared usage of data among data owners (cross-user) raises new challenges for data deduplication.

Because of the privacy and confidentiality concerns, the data owners prefer to encrypt data by their own keys before outsourcing them to the cloud. This makes cross-user deduplication impossible since the same data encrypted by different data owners’ keys will result in different ciphertexts, further duplication will not be found by the cloud. In order to solve this problem, Convergent Encryption (CE) is proposed, which uses a hash value of the data as the encryption key. As a result, the identical data will be encrypted into the same ciphertext, which enables deduplication on the ciphertext. Although seems to be a good candidate solution to achieve confidentiality and deduplication at the same time, unfortunately, it suffers from well-known weaknesses including bruteforce attacks and tag consistency problem. In order to solve these problems, message-locked encryption (MLE), and leakage-resilient deduplication schemes are proposed.

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