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Dental School from Students’ Perspective Based on Cipp Model

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Following the CIPP model, the current research evaluated four areas including input, content, process, and product in endodontics, periodontics and OMFS departments of Dental School of Babol University from the viewpoints of the students with the entry year of 2008 and 2009. According to the results, the content was desirable in the periodontics and surgery departments, while being reported relatively desirable in the endodontics department. The study of Pakdaman et al. in the periodontics group indicated that the students were more satisfied with the content than other three ones. These results are consistent with ours since the students of periodontics department have also described this indicator as relatively desirable. [4]

Our results in the input area showed that the indicator of “the relevance of the presented content with the needs of the students” was rather desirable in the periodontics department. Unlike our research, in the study of Pakdaman et al., the students were mostly satisfied with the content of the curriculum. [4] The “equipment and resources (materials) for the students” was one of indicators in the input area, which was rather desirable in both departments. It is recommended to improve the facilities and equipment of endodontics and periodontics departments at the discretion of the authorities. Pakdaman et al. stated that the students believed that resources and equipment of the periodontics department were insufficient for educational purposes, which is consistent with our research. [4]

In the study of Borhan-Mojabi, most of the students mentioned the equipment and tools required in the endodontics department were not sufficient, and 45% of the students declared the physical equipment of the periodontics department were not sufficient, which is similar to our study. [6] The least satisfaction with the equipment and facilities was reported in the endodontics department by Eslamipour et al., which resembles our study. [7]

Another indicator in the input area was the “sufficient number of patients for practical training”, which was undesirable in the endodontics department and relatively desirable in two other ones. There are many reasons for this lack of educational facilities, including easy access to the college for community members, proper and regular responses of college admissions to clients and etc.

On the other hand, the experiences of the patients with endodontic treatments and long-term treatment protocols in the endodontics, sometimes taking several sessions discourage some of them from referring to the college clinics for treatment and they occasionally give up to continue treatment sessions.

Moreover, insufficient number of patients in OMFS can be due to the nature of surgery treatments as well as the patients’ stress and anxiety about surgical procedures. According to Seijo et al., the endodontic treatment is considered as secondary therapy, and many patients return after a long time when their teeth require gingival surgery and sometimes extraction, so they are no longer suitable for endodontic treatment. [8]

In our study, the process area was desirable in the surgical department and it was relatively desirable in the endodontics and periodontics ones. The students rated the indicator of “having problem with teaching methods” relatively desirable in endodontics and periodontics departments. It seems that there must be some improvements made in endodontics and periodontics departments. In the study by Pakdaman et al., 67% of the students were completely or partially unsatisfied with the teaching method in the periodontics group, which is somewhat the same as our study. [4]

Our research findings in the process area demonstrated that the indicator of “consistency between theory and its application to clinical work” was relatively desirable in three departments, which may be due to the high volume of content in the theory courses based on the educational curriculum or due to the inconsistencies among professors’ teaching methods, confusing the students.

In the product area, the students explained the lowest capabilities in the indicators of “understanding the principles of root retreatment”, “familiarity with therapeutic stages of endodontic traumatic teeth”, “familiarity with problems during treatment”, and “familiarity with Perio-Endo lesions” in endodontics group, because above items are only theoretically offered in the general practitioners’ curriculum.

Hence, it is recommended that the post-graduate students teach such issues in the form of training seminars or case reports to the under-graduate students to help them improve their theoretical knowledge. Tanalp’s study also indicated that the students remarked their low self-confidence in root canal therapy in teeth with absorbed, apexification treatment and root retreatment. Such therapeutic cases are referred to post-graduate clinics and the students do not encounter with it. On the other hand, according to the Dental Education Association in Europe, the required capabilities of the general practitioner dentists include single-root and multi-root canal therapy, as well as the knowledge of surgical and non-surgical complicated root treatments; being consistent with the results of the present study.[9] Students of surgical group in the product area expressed their lowest capabilities in the indicators of “knowing the principles of surgical pathologic lesions of the oral cavity”, “knowing the treatment of sinusitis and maxillary sinus surgery”, “knowing the principles of endodontic surgery”,” the treatment of diseases and disorders of salivary glands”, “knowing the principles of extracting the impacted teeth”, “knowing the dent alveolar lesions” and, “soft tissue damages “.

According to these results, the indicators with rather favorable condition are considered as theoretical knowledge of the students. As a result, providing training seminars and case reports in the practical sections are recommended.

Wanigasooriya represented that the students had the lowest level of self-confidence in the skills of managing the medical emergency situations and the occurrence of oral systemic diseases as well as the highest level of self-confidence in the skills of treatment of periodontal diseases and cavities, which is compatible with our study. [10]

The product area in the periodontics group was relatively desirable. Students had the lowest level of capability in the indicators of “knowing the temporary and permanent splint”,” knowing the technique of gingivectomy and gingivoplasty”, as well as “knowing the principles of osteotomy and osteoctomy”. In the study of Pakdaman et al., the students in the periodontics group stated their good theoretical and practical abilities in terms of examination, treatment design and diagnosis. However, their theoretical and practical ability in the areas of splint, acute gingivitis and electrosurgery was weak. With regards to the fact that most of these cases are referred to the post-graduates students, insufficient skills of the students would be somewhat expected. Nevertheless, it should be noticed that post-graduate students must know these issues at an average level, which is congruent with our study.[4]

Samyari et al. evaluated the achievement level of the educational objectives in the periodontics training groups in Shahed and Tehran Universities. The results showed that the students did not achieve the desirable educational goals, as a result of which they ultimately found it essential to reform the educational system and provide the new strategies.[5] These results have relative similarity with our results.

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