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Cambodia dramatically needs to develop hygiene and sanitation in rural areas. Many of the people use ground near to where they stay- a method known as open defecation. This brings disease and is one of the reasons the country’s mortality rate is between the top in Asia. Five years ago only 16% of the residents in the rural area had access to a latrine. Mainly due to unreliable hand washing systems. This design targets to provide a conceptual design that provides to upgrade and maintain any public toilet in rural areas. The way out provided seeks to address this problem, especially among three small villages, within Kratie Province in Cambodia; Koh Khnear, Ksach Leav and Puntha Chea. Within these villages, poor hygiene and sanitation have been highlighted as a huge factor in negatively impacting health issues. The problem will be discussed over three main sections, discussion of the solution and theory behind it, evaluation of the design and some criteria and in the end a decision discussing its validity. The solution phase will include the conceptual design to be applied, along with a representation of the design. The evaluation portion will compare the design against 5 ley design criteria, cost, function, ease of Implementation, safety and sustainability. The conclusion of this report will outcome with a final judgment on implementation and any disparagement. This report aims to find a proper solution for “hygiene and sanitation in rural areas”, as outlined by Future Engineers. Two main factors restrict the solution. Firstly, the stakeholders are not able to talk over ideas and possible design. Secondly, there is no field tested evidence on this specific design in these targeted villages.
This report proposes a design for small-scale health and safety management in the Kratie Province of Cambodia. It has been recorded that over 40% population excrete in the open, with an average of 807kg of excrement, which increases hygiene and health issues. People do not have a proper place and so their option is to do it in open. Therefore, this project aims to improve these environments and make hand washing systems near public toilets close to as many people as possible. The operations and theory behind this design are made through the researching into existing hygiene and sanitation articles and manuals. The offered design will be further appraised against five design criteria. The five design criteria determined were cost, function, ease of implementation, sustainability and safety.
The cost criterion refer to the total amount of investment required to fund the design and are given a weighting of 25%. The function criterion refers to the capabilities and physical performances under most common problems the place will face and is given a weighting of 35%. The ease of implementation criterion refers to the level of difficulty of implementing the design in the targeted communities and is given a weighting of 12%. The sustainability criterion deal with how it impacts the people and environment around it and has been given a weighting of 20%. The safety criterion refers to the level of safety to those using and implementing the design and is given a weighting of 8%. The overall design scored 70/100. The high score is mainly due to sustainability, ease of local materials and easy maintenance used in constructing the design. This design also resolves health problems and hygiene problems with a straightforward method. The recyclable water near the public toilets makes it more sustainable. The maintenance should only be done once a month which is relatively a short amount of time.
The following design for hygiene and sanitation issues addresses two main problems, wasting water and health issues. These two problems can be solved by using recyclable water system with filtration. This system involves using a basin connected to a water tank using pipes and then connecting a water tap to the tank. The water runs from the water tap into the basin and goes back to the tank through the pipeline, the water comes back to the tap passing through a filtration process. A useful and straightforward filtration system is used which filters all the impure water coming from the water tank. These recyclable water tanks will be constructed near the public toilets as a lot of water in wasted when used by so many people.
The tank is of almost 100 liters filled with water. The water running form the tap goes back to the tank using the pipeline.
A carbon filtration system is used to get pure water for washing hands.
The first step in applying this process involves finding a place in three targeted villages stated in section 1. 0, which is approachable to everyone and is near a public toilet. The system should be connected outside the public toilet so anyone in need can use it to wash hands. The water runs from the water tap into the basin and goes back to the tank through the pipeline, the water comes back to the tap passing through a filtration process. A useful and straightforward filtration system is used which filters all the impure water coming from the water tank. The filtration system used in this design causes a perfect flow rate that result in high chemical absorption and efficient TOC, VOC and turbidity reduction, the construction of the cartridge allows maximum service life and high performance. The area occupied by the system will not be much, the dimension of the tank will be around 31cm in length, 41cm in width and 81cm in height to carry 100L of water. The system can be constructed simply by using local shovels to dig up a stand for the basin, bamboo can be used to make a strong stand for the basin. The basin will be at normal height of around 30-36 inches.
The primary cause of health issues within the 3 villages is due to disease spreading by open defecation. People who excrete in open and who do not take care of their hygiene and sanitation by washing hands spread diseases. This leads to main issues to be resolved in this hygiene and sanitation design. In this proposed design pure recyclable water system can be used for sanitation after using the latrine. The system’s effectiveness is determined by grouping 3 theoretical factor; bamboo properties, pure water and maintenance.
This first factor depends mainly on locally accessible bamboo, it will accordingly affect the potency they provide. A strong base is required to hold the basin for different conditions. In Asia bamboo is used as one of the construction methods traditionally. The bamboo is remarkably load bearing, compared to woods and other locally accessible materials. Bamboos of around 40 inches will be used in which 7 to 8 inches will be under the ground for a strong base to hold on the basin. The compressive strength of these bamboos can be empirically experienced, and the most commonly used bamboo in most of the countries was found to have a compressive strength of roughly between 40 and 80 N/mm^2.
The second main factor depends mainly on the life of the filter, the longer the filter lasts the less the maintenance will cost. The carbon filter is one of the most used filters for filtering the water. The filter impressively cleans most of the untreated ingoing water and the process is high-speed. There will be three constructed sinks in three targeted areas with the same filter attached to all the three systems.
This third main theoretical factor describes the theory behind this design, is the maintenance done. Maintenance is essential in ensuring that the water level is always maintained and is not less than the minimum level of 50L. Also, the maintenance of the filter and pipe is equally essential, to prevent the pipe from being clogged and making sure pure water is provided at all times. The inspection should be done in all the three places mentioned in section 1. 0 every 1-2 months and maintenance should be done every 6-12 months.
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