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Developing a sense of unique combination of many identifications self is an essential part of every individual becoming a mature person. Identities are much wider than self-identity coinciding with a particular human being. people are even willing to sacrifice their individual lives to preserve their identity group. ISIS suicide bombers are a well-known example. Many groups who fight together distinguish themselves as belonging to a common identity and having a common fate and a common interest. For this reason, people might be tempted to ignore important fundamental political and economic factors by relating wars to primordial ethnic desires. However, it is not the cultural differences that lead to conflict but the ideological, political, and economic goals of states actors. In wars, political leaders may purposely revise historical memories to strengthen this identity in the competition for powers.
And since everyone has multiple identities, their relative compatibility and importance differs in various times and circumstances. Although a person’s culture is partly inherited it is also constructed and chosen, and many people have multiple identities. In my view, ethnicity is not an unchanging primordial phenomenon. But rather ethnicity is socially constructed, with people choosing a history and common ancestry and creating differences from others. I consider identity to be largely socially constructed even if some traits of identity are not easily modified by social processes.
Although the primordia list focus on fixed identities, it fails to recognize variations in ethnic group formation. Instrumentalism is criticized by those who argue that ethnicity, in contrast to political affiliations, cannot be willfully decided on by individuals and is instead rooted in and regulated by the society as a whole. Out of the three explanations for identity formation, I believe that the social constructivism is more reasonable and explains better the conflicts. This school of thought focuses on the social nature of ethnic identity. In my view, ethnicity is neither open nor completely fixed, but it is subject to change if the social conditions change. Individuals and groups cannot avoid the fact that ethnic differences exist, but they determine for themselves what to make of those differences. thus, ethnic conflict depends on the opportunities provided for the group to reach their goals. Violent conflict is caused mainly by social and political systems that lead to inequality and do not offer options for the peaceful expression of differences. Changes in social interactions, such as violent conflict or increased tensions, influence the socially constructed nature of ethnicity.
Ethnic disputes are considered common in multiethnic societies and arise in periods of substantial political, economic, and social change and lead to uncertainty, emerging opportunities for action, and particularistic interests. Grievances and polarizing leadership lead to mobilization, ranging from conventional politics, strikes, demonstrations to violent acts such as terrorism and civil wars. Contemporary examples of these kinds of conflicts are Ukraine versus Russia, or ISIS generated violent conflicts.
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