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Difference Betwwen Hunter-gathers and Modern Life

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The history of the Modern World dates back to approximately 200,000 years ago. Human history is truly so unique and intriguing to lucubrate how we are today. Throughout this discussion there will always be an analysis of a few topics that cohesively tie together the most important history of the modern world.

The life of hunter-gathers differs from the life of the modern world. Hunter-gatherers groups could not store anything because they were constantly on the move as they looked for resources in different environments and followed migratory animals. Bedding on the move limited the amount of objects a person could carry, which is why people tried to own as little as possible. Since all hunter-gatherers lacked possessions, there were no significant difference between the wealthy and the poor. This is peculiarity unlike the modern world, class ranking between the wealthy and poor is seen by what you own, where you live and even your demography of your family. Moreover, among hunter-gatherers the best way to have access to things was to share them, in the hopes that others would also share with you. This was the reason why giving was the most important exchange among hunter gatherers: it created the expectation of future reciprocity. In comparison, purchasing and battering played almost no role. Thus the best strategy in a hunting gathering group was sharing. Even if individuals were selfish by nature, the context in which they lived would make them choose sharing as the most effective strategy for survival. In comparison the modern world is centered around a world of purchasing goods to keep the economy moving strongly. Also I would say that most individuals are selfish and do not choose to share today, since humans are selfish by nature, it only makes sense that each one is looking out for themselves.

Continuing, industrialization created a world different from the one emerging after the Agricultural Revolution. The Agricultural Revolution was the unprecedented in agricultural production in Britain due to the increase in land and labor productivity. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine tools, and the rise of the factory system. The agricultural output grew faster than the population thereby productivity remained the highest in the world. Industrialization transformed the economy from an originally agricultural one, to one based on the manufacturing of goods. Individual manual labor is often replaced by mechanized mass production, and craftsmen are replaced by assembly lines. Characteristics of industrialization include economic growth, more efficient division of labor, and the use of technological innovation to solve problems as opposed to dependency on conditions outside human control. This movement also led to new farming techniques and improved livestock breeding led to amplified food production. Industrialization created a different world with increases in total income and living standards in a society.

Additionally, some areas of the world became more economically and technologically developed than others, creating a discussion of why and how this has changed over time.

Moreover, Modern Global Capitalism emerged in the early 19th century in western Europe and the European offshoots of the Americas and Oceania. Recognizing the unparalleled dynamism of the new socio-economic system, and it differs from pre-modern societies.

In addition, communism spread throughout the world in the twentieth century like wildfire, this was another important factor to acknowledge in the history of the modern world. The main ideas of communism consisted of creating a stateless and classless society. Communists belive this can happen if people take away the power of the bourgeoisie. During WW1 a huge characteristic of the war as it happened was that when the war showed it was going to be long one communism became very popular, especially in Russia.

Furthermore, another important topic is the rise and fall of imperialism. Before the 1850’s European imperialism consisted of Europeans finding faster trade routes with the east (china and india) and exploring the Americas. Before the 1800’s silver flowed out of Europe to China, and after the 1800’s opium started to flow out of great britain to china. China in turn gave great britain tea, silk, porcelain, other goods, and a flow of ideas. The industrial revolution created an economic need in Europe for raw material goods. As Europe began expanding after the 1850’s and gaining these raw material from far off nations such as Algeria and other places in Africa technology started to take off in Europe. These raw materials gave way to tools of the european empire which included weapons such as the gunboat, automatic rifle, railways, steamships, the telegraph, and medicine such as quinine. The gunboat Nemesis was used in 1839 during the opium wars to help Great Britain defeat china. Automatic firearms self loaded and gave gunpowder an advantage over other weapons. No close contact fighting, could kill a target from father away. Railways and steamships provided new transportation technology connected the world and made it somewhat smaller. Allowed for faster travel. In 1844 the emergence of the telegraph made it so for the first time in human history messages could be sent anywhere in the world in just minutes. This was done through morse code. Lastly, quinine is a medicine that cures malaria and reduces fever. It is extracted from the bark of the cinchona tree which is native to the Andes mountains. European Imperialism had two major goals: to obtain raw materials that were crucial for European industries such as rubber, metals, minerals, food, etc. And to sell European manufactured products to the colonies, wanted to sell manufactured products and raw materials.

Lastly, an additional focuses on the history of the modern world comes from the major characteristics of the different parts of the world.     

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