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Different Transcripts of Calcium

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The eukaryotic signal transduction have calcium which is a common second messenger, and also initiate the various actions of cell in response of stress-induced stimuli and controls the wide range of signal pathways (Sanders et al., 2002). Variations in Cytosolic Calcium have been recognize in response to stimuli, such as oxidative stress, heat shock, cold, hyper and hypo-osmotic stress, touch, fungal elicitors, aridity, abscisic acid, gibberellic acid and nodulation aspects. (chehab et al. 2004). As calcium ion flow from nuclear envelop, mitochondrian, endoplasmic reticulum, vacoule, apoplast and chloroplast, level of cytosolic calcium in plants swiftly rise. (yang etal 2012).

An elevation in the cytosolic application of calcium integrates different orders of signals and responses. (Ye et al., 2009).Calcium dependant protein kinases have four domains an N-terminal domain, an autoinhibitory domain, a kinase domain, and a calmodulin-like domain. N-terminal domain shows the highest sequence of diversity among Calcium dependant protein kinases. (yang etal., 2012). The N- and C-terminal domains are varying from other domains of Calcium dependant protein kinases. The length of N-terminal domain of Calcium dependant protein kinases ranges from 40 to 180 amino acid and the sequence of these amino acids between the members of family CDPKs show no homology. (Klimecka etal, 2007).

Calcium dependant protein kinases are stimulated by the explicit binding of calcium and are biochemically specific from other calcium dependant kinases (Yang etal 2003).9 of 34 isoforms of CDPKs have been observed in A. thaliana, which are present either in the nucleus. Cytoplasm, or associated with the plasma membrane. Different transcripts of calcium dependant protein kinases have been observed in different plants and plant organs.In most of cases calcium dependant protein kinases are actively expressed in propagating tissues. NtCDPK1 in N. tabacum is mostly expressed in quickly propagating tissues such as root and shoot meristems and developing flower buds. (Zhang et al., 2005).

It was observed that cytosolic OsCDPK13 in young tissues of rice plant gives the maximum level of expression (Abbasi et al., 2004). In seeds and pollen, transcripts of calcium dependant protein kinase are decoded. Calcium dependant protein kinase of rice is expressed particularly in the endosperm of premature seed. (Asano et al., 2002).This review will focus on CDPKs that is the largest subfamilies of plant protein kinases. CDPKs are found only in the plant kingdom algae and in some protozoans (Harmon et al., 2001; Cheng et al., 2002).

CDPKs, being members of a single family, play distinct roles in mediating various responses to calcium signals (Lee et al., 1998). The CDPKs have been proven to be involved in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, dehydration, chilling temperature, salinity, hormones and pathogenic elicitors can all induce specific changes in the CDPKs genes expression in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice and tobacco (wan etal., 2007). Plant CDPKs have been found associated with chromatin, plasma membrane, and the cytoskeleton (yoon etal., 1999).

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