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Different Types of Cellular Respiration and Their Role in The Body

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Here is an explanation of how the different types of cell respiration, aerobic and anaerobic, can be used by skeletal muscles during exercise. Moreover, after this I’ll discuss how multiple body systems normally work together for oxygen to enter the body and reach cells. 

To begin with, it’s needed to know that the key systems that work hand in hand to provide cells with oxygen are circulatory and respiratory system. The intake of oxygen is crucial in cellular respiration. The process of cellular respiration comprises breaking down of glucose in order to produce energy that can be used for cells themselves and surroundings. The waste product which is generated out of this process needs to be thrown out or taken out so that the wastage would not harm the cells themselves.

The respiratory system comprises breathing in oxygen into a body and throwing out carbon dioxide from a body. According to Sherwood during the inhaling process, oxygen goes through trachea, and then down into bronchi (narrower tubes). It further gets into bronchioles (smaller extended tubes) and finally reaches alveoli (small air sacks). A cluster of capillaries is present around alveoli. Red blood cells, which contain haemoglobin, can be found in these capillaries. The oxygen which is pumped in, travels from the alveoli into the red blood cells and interact with the jhaemoglobin to produce oxyhaemoglobin. Then this oxygenated blood takes oxygen to different parts of body cells.

After the cellular respiration, the waste product, carbon dioxide will be diffused out of the cell into the capillary. Carbon dioxide, being with the blood in the capillary (deoxygenated blood) is transferred to venules and then to vena cava. Then this flow of deoxygenated blood reaches the right artrium of heart. Then after, it flows to the right ventricle and then to pulmonary artery, finally reaching the lung.

Skeletal muscle use different types of cell respiration: aerobic and anaerobic during exercise and this topic is discussed with terminologies and process. Aerobic respiration is a series of oxygen-requiring reaction that produces cellular energy which is used by ATP for muscular activity. During the process, pyruvic acid from glycolysis gets into mitochondria to break down food, thus oxidising to yield ATP, carbon dioxide, water and heat. It is the preferred method of ATP production by skeletal muscle cells due to the fact that aerobic respiration needs oxygen and can be sustained for a longer period of time provided that sufficient oxygen and nutrients are supplied. These nutrients comprise pyruvic acid accumulated from glycolysis of glucose, fatty acids from the splitting of of triglycerides in adipose cells and amino acids from the breakdown of proteins. In carrying out daily activities, of approximate 10 mins, aerobic cellular respiration provides ATP in a higher proportion or as needed. 

On the other hand, anaerobic cellular respiration do not need oxygen and it is a series of ATP-producing reactions. However, during exercise, the respiration is still capable to generate energy, in a significant quantity. In this context, the anaerobic reactions changes a larger amount of pyruvic acid to lactic acid, where most of the lactic acid spread the skeletal fibres muscle into the blood. Then after, formation of glucose occur due to the conversion of lactic acid by liver cells. Thus glycolysis is able to produce about 30-40 seconds of maximal muscle activity. In the end result, anaerobic glycolysis generates ATP instantly to regulate muscle functioning for a few minutes. However, in the end, this respiration negatively impacts muscle activity , which is followed by muscle fatigue. 

To sum up, the role of circulatory system is significant in transporting blood to cells. Firstly, the oxygenated blood flows from lungs through pulmonary vein to the left atrium (heart) and then to left ventricle. The ventricle is connected to aorta, a big artery, which distributes blood to different parts of the body, exerting pressure. The aorta or arteries circulate the oxygenated blood to arterioles (tiny vessels) and then transported to capillaries. These capillaries, ultimately distribute oxygen into cells of body to make cellular respiration. Overall, Aerobic cell respiration is averagely 18 times more efficient than that of anaerobic cell respiration because aerobic respiration produces much more ATP compared to anaerobic respiration. Better exercise need a lot of energy and this can be better fulfilled by aerobic respiration.

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