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Columbus and his crew first went ashore at the Bahamas after 33 days of travel from the Canary Islands. When they arrived, the Arawaks greeted them by bringing them food. Columbus had expected to find gold, and when he didn’t, he went on a slave raid, taking over 1500 Arawaks as slaves for Spain. In two years, half of the 250.000 Indians in Haiti were dead.
Encomiendas were made where they took the Arawaks into slave labour. They died by thousands, and by 1550 there were around 500 left. Shortly after they went completely extinct.
Bartolomé de las Casas wrote ‘History of the Indies’ and reported that from 1494 to 1508, over 3.000.000 people had perished from war and slavery, and manifests how unbelievable it seems. History has shown us that every group of settlers did the same cruelties: Pizarro to the Incas, Cortés to the Aztecs, Virginian settlers to Powhatans and Pequots, and Columbus to the Arawaks.
Raleigh named Virginia in Queen Elizabeth’s honour when he was sent over to explore the land. In 1585 his cousin Richard Greenville landed in Virginia with 7 ships and was warmly received by the Indians. But shortly after, one of them stole a silver cup and Greenville punished the whole group by burning the whole village.
1607: The 1st permanent English settlement in America is set by the Virginia Company. Captain John Smith (from Pocahontas’ story) was one of these settlers. The Indians got alarmed by the growing numbers of settlers and tried to make them leave with violence, but the war they created would ultimately signify their extermination.
The 2nd permanent settlement was in Massachusetts by the Pilgrims, who arrived in the Mayflower. They also had issues with the novel Indians and in 1636 (they’d arrived in 1620) a war exploded. In 1675 another war exploded when Metacomet (known as Phillip by the Pilgrims) tried to make the settlers go away. This is known as King Phillip’s war.
Mary Rowlandson was captured and held during the war by the Indians who kept her around 3 months. She wrote a book about it, which became the 1st ‘bestseller’ in America and England.
As settlers grew in number, Indians decreased, as their sacrifice was necessary ‘in the name of progress’. Settlers were driven by ambition and the desire of making everything private property, and they had to bring Christian European society and way of life to Indians for their own good. These kind of genocides are seen throughout history and even in the 20th century with Stalin or Nixon for instance.
The Mayflower was intended to arrive to Virginia but finally did on Massachusetts because of a storm that blew them off their course. As there were no laws to follow, they wrote the Mayflower Compact, signed first by William Bradford. He also kept a diary of the period 1620 to 1657, known as the ‘Journal of Plymouth Plantation’ and considered an important historical document.
John Winthrop was the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and he intended to terrorize and make Pequot Indians go away from their own lands. Not all settlers agreed on how Indians were treated and a very important dissenter was Roger Williams, who defended religious freedom, Native Americans, and was one of the 1st abolitionists.
Roger Williams questioned Massachusetts Bay Colony’s legal basin to take land from the Indians and he was eventually banished for his behaviour. He then settled in Rhode Island along with other like-minded colonists, such as Anne Hutchinson, who was banished for believing that people shouldn’t go to church seeking a salvation.
In current Pennsylvania and upper NY lived then the Iroquois tribe, which included the Mohawks: they worked and owned the land in common, so private ownership was unknown to them. Also, women were respected in their society.
In 1619, in Virginia, they needed people to work for them in order to grow corn and tobacco for subsistence and export, but they couldn’t force the Indians to work for them because they were too defiant and tough.
By 1800, 10 to 15 million blacks had been made slaves in America, and it is roughly estimated that Africa lost around 50.000.000 people to slavery in the hands of plantation owners in Western Europe and America.
In 1700 Virginia needed slaves to work the tobacco plantations, and 1/12 of the population were slaves who were held in by rigorous laws such as the Virginia slave code which made running away a severe crime.
In 1676 Bacon’s Rebellion exploded in Virginia, which led to the burning of Jamestown by poor whites along with slaves and servants. Those whites were the result of English development of industry in the 1500s and 1600s. They were exiled by their hometowns to America.
In 1600s and 1700s all white people that had the urgency of going to America to escape their poor conditions became a profit source for traders and slave masters in America. They went as indentured servants, who were bought and sold like slaves.
In 1717 The Parliament made the transportation to the ‘New World’ a punishment for crime, so tens of thousands of convicts were transported to the colonies and put to work after that.
These poor whites, the slaves, the soldiers, etc. joined the Indians as the gap between rich and poor widened. So the colonial elite had many issues at hand and controlling everyone became really difficult.
Bacon’s Rebellion was the 1st time that whites had joined negroes for a rebellion, and that made the colonists very afraid. After everything ended, the Virginia Assembly gave amnesty to white servants but not to blacks, and racism was used from now on as a repression method.
In the 18th Century many wars were fought in the colonies (especially in North America), and at the same time many revolts occurred in the colonies, such as the 1712’s incident in New York, where 25 negroes and 2 Indians burned down a building and killed 9 whites.
In late December 1606, Smith and others set sail for Virginia from England, stopping in the Canary Islands.
Once there, they established Jamestown by a river. They built a fort by Nay that would be attacked by the Indians.
When all their provisions were spent, Smith blamed it on themselves as they hadn’t planned it carefully before they sailed.
Once Smith was hunting with some of his men and he was attacked by the Indians. Two of them were slaves and Smith himself managed to kill two Indians before they made him a prisoner.
Smith was held a prisoner for several weeks and recounts his captivity in the ‘General History of Virginia’, and how he was able to procure his own liberty.
Smith amazed the Indians with a compass, as the needle would move without anyone touching it, and he demonstrated with it many things that impressed the Indians.
He was put in a house and fed until he wouldn’t take anything else, and then the guards would eat the leftovers and bring him fresh food the next time. Smith was worried they were fattening him to eat him.
He was finally received by Powhattan, their emperor, who again fed him before he forced him to put his head on the ground in order to be sacrificed by Powhattan with two rocks.
Powhattans’ niece (Pocahontas) saved him by putting his head in her arms, so Powhattan spared him and later made business with him.
Powhattan wanted a canon and a couple of millstones, but when the Indians were to retrieve them they found the millstones too heavy to carry and they were terrorized by the demonstration of the canon and fled back into the woods.
Bradford considered the Church of England ceremonies unlawful and that the tyrannous power of the prelates shouldn’t be submitted to.
Bradford tells that his congregation was prosecuted and even some of them were thrown in prison, so they resolved to go to Holland, where they heard there was freedom of religion.
12 years after they decided to sail for North America in order to distance themselves from their enemies in Europe.
Apart from that, they also went away to distance their young members from the temptations they had in Holland, dangerous activities that put their soul in danger.
They knew that America wasn’t ideal, but they decided to go anyway because all great and honourable actions are accompanied with great difficulties that must be surmounted, always making decisions with good ground and reason and counting with God’s help.
They fled to America in the Mayflower in 1620 and though many were sick during the travel, and the ship went through several storms, only one of them died, which they considered a signal from God indicating they were on the right path.
They were blown off course by a storm and they finally arrived in November in Cape Cod (Massachusetts), from where they resolved to sail south by the Hudson River, which they finally didn’t due to the bad weather.
The land where they arrived was populated by Indians who fought them and that added to the terrible weather left them in the hands of their God’s mercy.
They signed the Mayflower Compact and built their first ‘common’ house in December 25th, but half of them died that 1st winter.
Summer harvest was fruitful so they started to worry about other matters such as governance, as settlers numbers were increasing Thomas Morton had problems with the pilgrims in 1628 for not following their behaviour patterns in his ‘Merry Mount’. He had taken into his care a group of indentured servants who he intended to sell to Virginia’s plantations.
Morton also traded gunpowder and shot with the Indians and even taught them how to use it, so the congregation, nervous about seeing Indians bearing firearms, decided that Morton had to stop his activities, and when he refused his plantation was voided and Morton placed under arrest and sent to England, from where he returned the year after.
1632 some of the settlers decided to move from Jamestown and scattered around the Bay Area, and this made Bradford fear that the church would be divided and God would punish them.
1642 Thomas Granger was accused of copulation with animals, and after he confessed he was executed in 8 September. The animals he had used (which he remembered) were also put to death and not eaten from.
Bradford was concerned about wicked people mixing with the righteous ones, because of unworthy individuals who came in to America for self-profit only.
Bradford believes that his peers lived to a long age because of God’s will, encouraging others to follow their steps and be righteous.
Morton arrived into New England two years after the Pilgrims, and he was deeply struck by the beauty of the place, which he considered ‘paradisiacal’.
He changed the name of the place where he settled from Passonggessit to Mare-Mount. A celebration was held on May Day like the Old English custom, setting an 80 foot Maypole and drinking beer along with the Indians.
He wrote a poem and fixed it to the Maypole. It was a mixture of classical and biblical allusions and it bothered the Pilgrims, who didn’t understand it and despised classical learning. They also found the Maypole a lamentable spectacle, calling it the Golf of Horel.
People danced around the Maypole and drank white a gleeful song was sung urging them to drink and to delight in the joy of Hymen’s, the God or marriage ceremonies.
Pilgrims were greatly annoyed by these harmless activities and they availed themselves by Morton’s gun trading with the Indians to raid his house and charge him with criminal acts.
The Separatists celebrated Morton’s arrest and fell asleep, so Morton was able to escape at night. He slammed the door behind him and woke up the guards, who didn’t know what to do then.
Morton arrived to his house in Mare-Mount by going through the woods where he barricaded himself along with two assistants and prepared for the assault.
The leader of separatists (Miles Standish aka Captain Shrimp) was very determined to do whatever it took to amend his reputation, damaged by Morton’s escape.
8 other Separatists and Standish approached Morton’s house seeking the ‘seven-headed Hydra’ as they called him. They bargained his surrender and promised that there would be no violence towards him: they fled and as soon as he got out, they threw him to the ground.
Morton considered that Separatists were great hypocrites, as they showed off their religion too much but had no humanity. They resolved to send him to England but no ship would want to take him so they left him on the island where he remained a month with the Indians there helping him to survive.
In her prologue, Anne Bradstreet admits that she’s not a great poet, and that she will never improve at it, and claims that, even though men have superior skills as writers, women may also sometimes show that they love literary abilities too.
In her poem to the memory of her father she writes that she’s bound by duty to praise her progenitor, and there’s no better place than heaven for him, as he was humble and honest.
She compares her poems to the fruit of a feeble brain which was snatched away from her by unwise friends, embarrassing her when exposing her private thoughts to strangers and her poor poems falling into the hands of critics.
‘Before the Birth of One of Her Children’ she places the birth of her child and her own death side to side to compare adversity and joy in life. She writes the poem to her husband, who should continue to love her after her death and not get married again.
‘My Dear and Loving Husband’ praises her marriage in an erotic sense, although for Puritans marriage should glorify God but not distract them from their devotion to God.
‘A letter to Her Husband…’ a love poem where she uses the sun metaphor to describe the absence of her husband: it is winter outside and inside her. She again openly displays her sensuality.
‘Another’ she again laments his absence and compares the sorrow of it to three animals: a deer, a dove and a mullet (fish).
‘In Reference to Her Children’ she calls her 8 children ‘birds’: 4 boys and 4 girls who have hatched in her nest and for whom she has laboured to give them everything. Although they leave to live on their own, she hopes they’ll always be united.
‘In Memory… Elizabeth Bradstreet’ she feels her mourning her deceased grandchild as a fault, as it’s God job to know when our time has come.
‘In Memory… Anne Bradstreet’ an anguished elegy, she’s sheltered by this terrible loss, she feels she deserves it for pinning her hopes of fading things.
‘On My Dear Grandson Simon Bradstreet…’ she has been subdued to silence by God’s almighty hand. She tells the child’s soul to be with his sisters in heaven in a never-ending joy.
‘For Deliverance from a fever’ she’s terribly ill and she wonders if God is displeased with her. She searches for a sign of whether she should be saved, and is overcome by doubt when she can’t find any evidence.
‘Here follows some verses…’ she addresses the struggle between her attachment to earthly matters and her devotion to God. She finally affirms that her hopes and treasures lie above, in Heaven.
‘As weary Pilgrim’ an extended metaphor on the life of a pilgrim such as her who now awaits death openly. She hopes God will help her prepare for the moment so when the time comes she will be delivered to God clean and virgin-like.
The utilization of the ‘Tenth Muse’ in the title of her collection of poetry doesn’t convey the humility shown in her poems.
Mary Rowlandson’s Narrative is both subjective and objective; she focuses on the events but is necessarily blessed, as her descriptions are her own thoughts and feelings.
The Indians attacked Lancaster on 10/2/1675 and made prisoners of the survivors. Rowlandson and her baby are both wounded by the same bullet, and the Indians promise not to kill them.
First Remove: she and the other captives spend the night on a hill while the Indians celebrate their victory singing, dancing and feasting. 2nd Remove: they’re marched off into the wilderness. Her and her 6y/o child are thrown from the horse and the Indians laugh.
She thinks about her children through her journeys. The death of her youngest has struck her very hard but she’s grateful to God for helping her through. Another woman at the camp isn’t so quiet and begs the Indians to let her go, but they smash her head and her baby’s.
Another captive tells her to put oak leaves on the wound. The Indians threaten her that they will kill her if the baby doesn’t stop crying, but the baby dies after 9 days. She spends the night besides her dead child and in the morning her master (who is married to King Philip’s sister) orders that the child should be taken away and buried. She later comes across her 10y/o daughter but she loses track of her when the Indians disperse.
The Indians cross a freezing river to escape the French army. They come upon English fields and gather remainings. She meets with her son Joseph but they’re separated again, and she’s taken across the Connecticut River, where she meets King Philip himself.
The Indians lie to her telling her that her son is dead (he has eaten the boy) but she has hope that they’re lying and she will be rescued soon, as her master promised.
She’s told that she must join her master in Wachusett. Along the way she finds her sister’s daughter but isn’t allowed to spend the night with her. When she arrives she finds her master is straying with his younger squaw, and he insists that she bathes and eats something. She then learns that he has 3 squaws.
Throughout her narrative she calls the Indians ‘hell-hounds’ and disparages Weetamoo, but considers her master as his best friend among the Indian.
Although women’s writings weren’t approved by the Massachusetts Bay community, her narrative was supported because it depicted the Indians as savages and would help justify their permanent banishment.
Rowlandson narrates 20 ‘removes’ (departures), every one of them about trials she overcomes. Her strong faith keeps her alive and she sees everything as the will of God, using biblical allusions to explain what’s happening.
Her narrative pictures her as an upright Puritan woman whose respectability cannot be questioned, but maybe her retelling of events was restricted by social conventions, as she wrote it for Puritan society.
There’s a lack of information about Rowlandson’s life after her captivity and it’s assumed she simply went back into her Puritan, good wife life. Although it seems improbable, this gap in information serves well Puritan purposes.
AKA Hector St John bought farmland in 1764 after serving France in the French/Indian War. He got married and raised a family until the American Revolution drove him to 1st join the loyalists in NY and then, after being imprisoned as a suspect of being a British spy, back to France where he wrote about American culture and agriculture as if they were letters.
The letter ‘What is an American’ takes a sweeping survey of the impact of America on the European immigrant, sketching the diversity of American life but focused on the rural culture of the middle colonies.
Depicts Americans as pragmatic, hard-working, he has become an American and pursues his self-defined goals, and while the letter is very romantic and even utopian sometimes, it reflects the real experiences of an European-born American.
He imagines himself as an Englishman who has come settle in America in 1783, and describes what he would see and how different from Europe it would be. America has a smaller gap between rich and poor, and titles don’t exist. Almost everyone there are farmers and live in comfy, modest homes.
He describes the mixture of settlers in America, the country has become a melting pot of different cultures. People came to America to find a better opportunity and a new life where they’ll be treated fairly. Many of these immigrants left their homes for poverty or prosecution, so they have no attachment to their previous lives and consider themselves Americans.
According to St. John, an American is a European or descendent of one. Therefore, America is the only place in the world where a person may have parents and grandparents from different cultural backgrounds. The author then goes on and says that an American is someone who has given up the old for the new and is motivated by hard-work to improve his life.
The Americans created a new society that sustained their new freedom and prosperity. In a land of rough equality the colonists were united by a mild government that demanded few taxes. In this land every person works for himself, instead of serving a powerful landlord, King or bishop. There, men are free from aristocrats for whom they must die or serve.
Although his 3rd letter is written so optimistically, his entire work, depicts America in a very different way. He exposes American Revolution as brutal, divisive and hypocritical, and although he’s often read as the Champion of American independence and democracy, he actually mourned the demise of British America.
Most of the Americans he describes come from Europe as afflicted and hopeless people. In America, they’re freed from their oppressions and they become new people as they adopt new ideas and government. For Crevecoeur, humans are the result of their surroundings, and will change as their situation does.
He was the 1st one to exploit the ‘melting pot’ image of America, as every present and future American will be a mixture of blood from many countries, forming a new race that one day would change the world.
He believes that religious indifference will become prevalent and that Americans won’t unite under only one religion. They will lose the modes of European Christianity as they’ve lost their names as Englishmen, Frenchmen, etc.
He believes that Europeans living in the wilderness will eventually become even worse than the Indians, as they turn into hunters rather than in cultivators and adopt the ferocity of the savage.
Franklin addresses his autobiography to his illegitimate son, William, who was then governor of New Jersey. He’s taking a vacation on the countryside to tell his son about his life, as he might want to know about it. He claims that, although he made some small errors, he enjoyed his life and thanks God.
He addresses some themes that will come up later as the betterment or others and religion. His tone is humble and utilitarian. He writes so that his own life will be on example to his son of how to live well. This and his mention of correcting some errors if he were to relive his life show us his constant interest in self-improvement.
At 17 he left his home and when he arrived to NY he didn’t find a job, but he learned that he could find one in Philadelphia with a printer named Andrew Bradford. His journey is eventful as he gets caught in a storm, during which he saves the life of a drunk from Philadelphia. He finally arrives in the city on October 6, 1723.
He stumbles into a Quaker meeting near the market and one of these Quakers shows him a place to stay the night. The following day he goes to Bradford, who tells him he can offer him housing but no work. He instead sets him up with another printer and soon he realizes that both men are poorly qualified. Shortly after he moves in with a man called John Read, with whose daughter he will eventually get married with.
He starts a new family with Miss Read and manages to support his family with ‘industry and frugality’, saving money always. He mentions his respect for every religion and that he seldom attends ‘public worship’ and finds fault in some Christian theological interpretations of morality.
He’s obsessed with self-improvement and he comes up with a list of 13 virtues and sets a plan by which he will develop one per week, eventually perfecting them all. He keeps track of his successes and failures in a small book he keeps with him at all times and also develops a daily planner. He finds many faults at first, but eventually manages to correct all of them.
He likes to be ironical and mocks idealist conceptions of men with his goal of achieving ‘Moral Perfection’, as men can’t be actually improved until perfection.
His style is noticeably easy to read and reports on the important facts and not the secondary ones. He carried that style into his newspaper writing and it has survived there to the present. He played a major role in developing journalism as a terse form of writing, always sticking to the point. He always finds the shortest way to express everything.
Becoming more obsessed with the betterment of life-quality, in 1742 he invented a stove that transferred more heat to a room’s air. He refuses a patent of his own because we should be generous with inventions as we enjoy others’ inventions as well.
1749 he opened subscriptions for opening and supporting an academy which also included a free School for poor children, with trustees from various religious sects to avoid predominance of one above the others. This academy eventually became the University of Pennsylvania.
Phillis was born in Senegal about 1753 and brought as a slave to Boston in 1761. She was purchased by John Wheatley as a servant to his wife, and they educated her. She soon began writing poetry and in 1773 published her 1st and only book ‘Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral’. As a proof of her authorship, the book included a preface where 17 men of Boston claimed that she’d wrote them.
‘On Being Brought from Africa to America’ is her most famous poem, and only 8 lines long. She speaks about her luck on being brought from Africa, as it introduced her to Christianity, which has brought her peace and salvation. She says that some people scorn the African races, saying that their dark skin is a mark of inferiority, and she concludes by commanding Christians to remember that blacks can also become spiritual and educated (as she is) and they’re equally worthy a place in society and heaven as whites are.
Wheatley’s poem is written in iambic pentameter, and the 1st part speaks directly from the speaker’s experience of coming to America as a slave. She writes in the 1st person, shifting into 3rd in the second part of the poem, where she refers to ‘some’ people rather than herself. She also is using the imperative and forceful language to give her readers a moral lesson: if they consider themselves ‘good Christians’ they must accept Africans as well.
‘To the University…’ she uses free verse in 3 stanzas, starting out by making clear the difference between her background and theirs. She states that, while she was only recently brought from Africa (land of errors) they’ve had the privilege of studying the world’s best wisdom. In line 3 she starts the story of her life and how God kept her safe. She turns sarcastic then by saying that, through European eyes her culture, religion, language and skin colour were an error, and her goal was to make them realize that Africans and Egyptians weren’t as bad as they had thought.
The poem is a critique of white society, and warns students that virtue, morality and religion cannot be shunned for education and partying. Although she was socially inferior to the people she was addressing the poem to, she always felt equal to them in God’s eyes, and she uses white’s beliefs to express her own sense of rightness and self.
In his autobiography he writes that he was born in Guinea and kidnapped with his sister around the age of 11, sold by local slave traders and shipped to Virginia, where he was sold to a Royal Navy officer (M. Pascal) who renamed him ‘Gustavus Vassa’. They travelled the ocean together for 8 years, during which he was baptised and learned to read and write. Pascal then sold him to a ship captain in London, who sold him to an American Quaker (Robert King) in Montserrat. He worked as deckhand, valet and barber for King and also earned money by trading on the side, making enough to buy his own freedom in only three years.
He describes people as a nation of dancers, musicians and poets, and claims that he still looks back with pleasure on the first scenes of his life, although it is mostly mingled with sorrow now. He recalls his kidnap with his sister, and how they were soon separated from each other. They met again but for a very short time.
Early in his captivity he had a master who was chieftain of people who spoke the same language as he did. He had observed that his home was in the direction of the rising sun, so he waited for his 1st opportunity to escape. But he overheard that if he escaped he’d never reach home as the way back was too long and intricate, and he would end up perishing in the woods, so he finally never even tried to go back.
He was again sold, and eventually come to the town of Tinmah, where he was bought by a wealthy merchant. There he tasted cocoa and sugar for the first time and was introduced to the merchant’s neighbour, a widow with whose son he became friends. He was very content with his situation and never tried to escape, but he was soon sold again.
He was whisked away to a land where the people were completely different from everything he knew. Men were uncircumcised and ate without washing their hands, and women weren’t as modest as the ones he’d been accustomed to. They used iron pots and dwelled in canoes on the river. As Olaudah never had learned to swim, he was amazed to see them dive into the water and return safely to the surface.
After several months he arrived to the sea coast, where he 1st saw the ocean and was thrown into a slave ship. The stranger’s fair complexion, long hair and weird language made him think that he had gotten into a world of bad spirits that were going to kill him. Looking round he saw many blacks chained together and that made him faint. When he recovered he found himself surrounded by other blacks trying to cheer him up. He was soon taken below deck where the smell wouldn’t let him eat, for which he was severely punished for the 1st time in his life. He was chained, so he couldn’t throw himself overboard.
He had never seen people acting in a such a savage manner as the whites did on that ship, not only to blacks but to other whites as well, as they flogged unmercifully one of them until he died on deck one day.
Among the chained slaves, Olaudah found some of his nation who told him they were being carried to the white people’s country to work for them. When the ship sailed, below deck it was so crowded that they barely had room to turn around, and they could barely breathe, so many of the slaves died there.
When they reached Barbados there were a number of merchants and planters who boarded the ship and examined them. Olaudah feared that they would’ve been eaten by them, so the whites took some old slaves from the land so they could see they wanted them to work for them. On land, they’re conducted to a merchants’ yard and Olaudah is struck by everything he sees on his way there. The slaves are then sold, and families are tragically separated in the trading. Olaudah asks himself if they have learned this from their God.
A few days later he’s placed on a small ship bound to Virginia, where he’s given the task of fanning a gentleman on a plantation. He is alarmed when he sees a black woman wearing an iron muzzle, and is struck by the sight of a clock and paintings whose eyes seem to follow him around. He’s purchased by a lieutenant who now commands a trading ship and wants him as a gift to a friend in England. When they’re going, he hopes they’re returning to Africa. He’s given the name Gustavus Vassa and befriended by a young man from America with whom he becomes very close. Olaudah thinks that Rich
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