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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory Maslow’s need theory is about hierarchy of universal needs that motivate a person. Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory condenses and integrates the long list of needs that had been studied previously into a hierarchy of five basic categories (Steven L. McShane and Von Glinow 2008). Maslow thought that personal needs can be arranged in a hierarchical order; in essence, he believed that once a given level of need is satis?ed, it no longer serves to motivate. The next higher level of need has to be activated in order to motivate the individual. (Fred 2011). Maslow in his book (1954) identi?ed ?ve levels in his need hierarchy. They are, in brief, the following:
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation Herzberg defined two sets of factors in deciding employees working attitudes and level of performance, named motivation & hygiene factors (Robbins, 2009). Two-factor theory describe job satisfiers are related to job content and that job dissatisfies are allied to job context. Herzberg labeled the satisfiers motivators, and he called the dissatisfier hygiene factors. In Herzberg’s theory, the motivation factors are intrinsic factors that will increase employees’ job satisfaction; while hygiene factors are extrinsic factors to prevent any employees’ dissatisfaction. (Fred, 2011).
The implication for organizations to use this theory is that meeting employees’ extrinsic or hygiene factors will only prevent employees from becoming actively dissatisfied but will not motivate them to contribute additional effort toward better performance. To motivate employees, organizations should focus on supplying intrinsic or motivation factors (Robbins, 2009).
Extrinsic factors are well known as job context factors; are extrinsic satisfactions granted by other people for employees (Robbins, 2009). These factors serve as guidance for employers in creating a favorable working environment where employees feel comfortable working inside. When all these external factors were achieved, employees will be free from unpleasant external working conditions that will not destroy their feelings of dissatisfactions, but remains themselves neutral in neither satisfied nor motivated; however, when employers fail to supply employees’ extrinsic factors needs, employees’ job dissatisfaction will arise.
Intrinsic factors are the actual factors that contribute to employees’ level of job satisfactions. It has widely been known as job content factors which aim to provide employees meaningful works that able to intrinsically satisfy themselves by their works outcomes, responsibilities delegated experience learned, and achievements harvested (Robbins, 2009). Intrinsic factors are very effective in creating and maintaining more durable positive effects on employees’ performance towards their jobs as these factors are human basic needs for psychological growth. Intrinsic factors will propel employees to insert additional interest into their job. When employees are well satisfied by motivational needs, their productivity and efficiency will have improved.
This theory further proposed the intrinsic and extrinsic factors are interdependence to each other. Presence of extrinsic factors will only eliminate employees’ work dissatisfaction; however, it will not provide job satisfaction. On the other hand, sufficient supply in intrinsic factor will cultivate employees’ inner growth and development that will lead to a higher productivity and performance; however, absent of this factor will only neutralize their feeling neither satisfy nor dissatisfy on their jobs. Extrinsic factors only permit employees willingness to work while intrinsic factors will decide their quality of work. These two groups of extrinsic and intrinsic factors are not necessary opposite with each other, as opposite of satisfaction are not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction. Similarly, opposite of dissatisfaction are not satisfaction, but no dissatisfaction (Robbins, 2009).
ERG Theory of Motivation Alderfer expanded Maslow’s basic needs and refined them into existence, relatedness, and growth needs. Alderfer proposed the ERG theory based on results of empirical studies to explain the relationship between satisfaction of needs and human desires. Existence needs include a person’s physiological and physically related safety needs, such as the need for food, shelter, and safe working conditions. Relatedness needs include a person’s need to interact with other people, receive public recognition, and feel secure around people (i.e., interpersonal safety). Growth needs consist of a person’s self-esteem through personal achievement as well as the concept of self-actualization presented in Maslow’s theory (Robbins 1996). ERG theory states that an employee’s behavior is motivated simultaneously by more than one need level. Thus, you might try to satisfy your growth needs (such as by completing an assignment exceptionally well) even though your relatedness needs aren’t completely satisfied (Conte, 2007).
ERG theory applies the satisfaction-progression process described in Maslow’s needs hierarchy model, so one need’s level will dominate a person’s motivation more than others. As existence needs are satisfied, for example, related needs become more important. Unlike Maslow’s model, however,
ERG theory includes a frustration regression process whereby those who are unable to satisfy a higher need become frustrated and regress to the next lower need level Armstrong (2001). For example, if existence and relatedness needs have been satisfied, but growth need fulfillment has been blocked, the individual will become frustrated and relatedness needs will again emerge as the dominant source of motivation. Although not fully tested, ERG theory seems to explain the dynamics of human needs in organizations reasonably well. It provides a less rigid explanation of employee needs than Maslow’s hierarchy.
Equity Theory of Motivation According to Fred (2012) equity theory developed by J. Stacey Adams, proposes that a major input into job performance and satisfaction is the degree of equity or inequity that people perceive in their work situation. Equity is when the ratio of a person outcome to input compared to another person ration is equal. On the other hand, inequity occurs when a person perceives that the ratio of his or her outcomes to inputs and the ratio of a relevant other’s outcomes to inputs are unequal.
If an employee perceives his/her ratio to be equitable in comparison to those of relevant others, there’s no problem. However, if the ratio is inequitable, he/she views herself as under rewarded or over rewarded. When inequities occur, employees attempt to do something about it. The result might be lower or higher productivity improved or reduced quality of output, increased absenteeism, or voluntary resignation Robbins and Coulter (2012).
Fred (2012) describes that both the inputs and the outputs of the person and the other are based on the person’s perceptions, age, sex, education, social status, organizational position, qualifications, and how hard the person works. Outcomes consist primarily of rewards such as pay, status, promotion, and intrinsic interest in the job. The referent is an important variable in equity theory that an individual compare themselves against the other persons, systems, or selves’ individuals in order to assess equity. Each of the three referent categories is important Robbins and Coulter (2012). The person category includes other individuals with similar jobs in the same organization but also includes friends, neighbors, or professional associates. Based on what they hear at work or read about in newspapers or trade journals, employees compare their pay with that of others. The system category includes organizational pay policies, procedures, and allocation. The self category refers to inputs–outcomes ratios that are unique to the individual. It reflects past personal experiences and contacts and is influenced by criteria such as past jobs or family commitments. Originally, equity theory focused on distributive justice, which is the perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals.
Expectancy Theory of Motivation The most comprehensive explanation of how employees are motivated is Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory. As it was described by Robbins and Coulter (2012) expectancy theory states that an individual tends to act in a certain way based on the expectation the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. It includes three variables or relationships:
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