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Effect of Medicines on The Internal Composition of The Stomach Under The Condition of Ulcer

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One of the most important systems in the human body is the digestive system. This system helps get nutrition from the food that we ingest. The stomach is the organ that is shaped in a “J” and consists of a different type of solution in it commonly known as the gastric acid. As the name suggests, gastric acid is acidic in nature; this is proven with the pH of the gastric acid varying from 1.5 to 3.5.

One of the most common infections caused in the stomach is ulcers, the most common ulcer is the peptic ulcers. It is often caused by a bacteria named Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Other causes are excessive use of inflammatory drugs, excess of smoking and drinking and also stomach cancer. This ulcer usually causes sores in the inner walls of the stomach and further decreases the pH of the gastric acid. Few common symptoms for this are indigestion, nausea, chest pain and sudden loss in weight. Peptic ulcers are often treated with allopathic medicine. Allopathy is the system of medical practice that aims to fight diseases by use of remedies such as drugs and surgery. There are various allopathic medicines used to treat stomach ulcers they are PPIs, histamine receptor models, bismuth subsalicylates and antacids.

These medicines alter the pH of the gastric acid to its original pH and fix the sores in the walls. All these medicines have a different way of working and are made of different chemicals. I want to check the effect of the different allopathic medicines on the internal composition of the stomach under the condition of a stomach ulcer. Thus my research question is:

To what extent does different types of allopathic medicines-PPIs, histamine receptor models, bismuth subsalicylates and antacids- treating a stomach ulcer have an effect on the internal composition of the stomach.

The reason why I choose this as my topic is that a peptic stomach ulcer is a very common problem within humans today and there are multiple medicines that can cure these ulcers. But one does not know which medicine is the most appropriate for their body. Also these medicines tend to cause drastic changes within the gastric acid. The main challenge I wanted to take up was to create an artificial working stomach model to check the effect of the various treatments on the gastric acid to garner data. Making a working model is difficult as there are a lot of components to implement.

Two artificial stomach models the dynamic stomach model and vatier’s model gave me the inspiration to make a model. These two models are both in vitro models (in vitro means any process that takes place in a test tube or anything outside the living organism) based on how the chemicals are digested. Basically, replicating the force within the stomach that helps mix both the substance and gastric acid thoroughly for further digestion as it later moves into the duodenum (small intestine).

Vartier’s model was mentioned in the research paper by J. Vatier, F. Lionnet, M. T. Vitre and M. Mignon which was published in 1988. This was based on evaluating the functions of antacids by creating an artificial stomach. This model main role in the experiment was to check the interaction between the different fluxes, the types of proteins present and using actual human gastric acid. They studied aluminium phosphate gel with some meat extracts. The results showed that the antacid increased the pH which regulated the emptying fluxes.

While the dynamic gastric model is also seen to use gastric acid, just like the earlier model. But these models are quite different from each other, Vatier’s model is laid out with different components like gastric acid or proteins in different compartments while DGM is seen to focus on the alignment of the whole in vitro model. It focuses on the vertical alignment of this system in our body and the spatial arrangement that the organs occupy. The model is seen to also include all the same chemicals and force (pressure) experienced by substances while going through digestion.

Taking inspiration from both the models the things that are going to be observed are:

The amount of time the medicines takes to react or dissolve in the stomach acid.

The pH level before and after the addition of the treatment.

Any colour change (if it occurs).

The effect of different amounts of medicine in the stomach acid (excess).

Variables:

Independent variable The gastric acid created.

Dependent variable The type of allopathic medicine added i.e. PPIs, histamine receptor blockers, antacids and bismuth subsalicylates.

Controlled variable Reason for controlling Method used to control

Same amount of gastric acid used. To check the effect of the medicine in the same condition. Used only 10 ml of gastric acid. This was done using a measuring cylinder.

Same form of medicine used. To check the way the tablets dissolved from the same state of matter. Get more accurate results. Used tablets for all the different types of medicines.

Same power of the medicines. To check the changes in the pH of the gastric acid Power used was of 40.

Same pH of the gastric acid in all conditions at the start of the experiment. To check the changes of pH before and after the addition of the medicines. The pH of the gastric acid was pH 1. More acidic as it is in a condition of a stomach ulcer.

Materials used:

To make the model:

  • Motor
  • Stand
  • Clamp
  • Rubber cork
  • Rubber pipe
  • Test tube with 2 inlets
  • Conical flask with 1 inlet
  • Glass rod
  • Battery
  • Rubber clamp.
  • Drill
  • Switch
  • Wires
  • Glue
  • Tape
  • Beaker

To make gastric acid:

  • Funnel
  • Hydrochloric acid
  • Potassium hydroxide flakes
  • Common salt
  • Distilled water
  • Bottles
  • Measuring cylinder
  • Weigh balance.

For observations:

  • pH strips
  • Stop watch

Medicines used:

PPIs:

  • Esomeprazole
  • Pantoprazole

Histamine receptor blockers:

  • Cimetidine
  • Famotidine

Bismuth subsalicylates:

  • Pepto-Bismol

Antacids:

  • Gaviscon

Methodology:

Artificial stomach model:

  • Take the stand and attach the clamp at an appropriate height.
  • Then take a metal plate and fuse it to the stand so the motor can sit there using a drill.
  • Then make the motor and attach it with glue on the metal plate.
  • Connect the motor to a battery using the wires.
  • Also connect the wires to the switch.
  • Stick the switch using glue on the base of the stand.
  • Put the battery also on the base of the stand.
  • Then attach the motor’s flap to a plastic pipe.
  • Attach the glass rod to the plastic pipe. Fuse it using heat.
  • Secure this area using tape.
  • The glass rod replicates the pounding or pressure within the stomach during digestion.
  • Put the test tube with 2 inlets in the clamp and secure it. This acts as the digester in the whole model.
  • Attach a rubber pipe to one of the inlets on the test tube.
  • Attach the other end of the rubber pipe to the only inlet on the conical flask (this is how the gastric acid will flow to the test tube from the conical flask).
  • Add a rubber clamp on this pipe so that one can regulate the amount of gastric acid entering the test tube.
  • Attach another rubber pipe to the other inlet on the test tube.
  • Add another rubber clamp on this pipe so that the gastric acid or the medicine does not leave the test tube while the whole process of the medicine dissolving takes place.
  • Let the pipe be within a beaker so the excess liquid can be removed and stored within the beaker.
  • Make sure the conical flask is at a higher position than the test tube so that the gastric acid can flow into the test tube.
  • Gastric acid:

  • The aim is to make 500 ml of gastric acid.
  • Take about 422.5ml of distilled water. Measure this amount using a measuring cylinder.
  • Then put it in another large measuring cylinder.
  • Take 2.5g potassium hydroxide flakes. Measure this amount using the weigh balance.
  • Then take 2.5g of common salt. Again measure this amount using the weigh balance.
  • Add 2.5g of both potassium hydroxide and common salt in the large measuring cylinder.
  • Stir the whole solution until it is transparent.
  • Then measure 77.5ml of hydrochloric acid using another measuring cylinder.
  • Add this to the large beaker and let it mix well.
  • Put the gastric acid into 2, 250ml bottles.
  • To check observations:

  • Take the pH strip to check the pH of the gastric acid.
  • Then add the medicine in the test tube and add the gastric acid in the conical flask.
  • Allow only 10 ml of gastric acid to enter the test tube. This is regulated by the rubber clamp.
  • Then on the motor and the glass rod starts to create pressure.
  • Switch on the stop watch as soon as the gastric acid enters the test tube to check how long it takes to dissolve the medicine.
  • Observe any changes in the colour of the solution during the whole process.
  • Stop the stop watch when the medicine has completely dissolve.
  • Open the rubber clamp to the beaker so that the whole solution enters the beaker.
  • Take a pH strip and put it in the beaker that contains the solution and note the pH down.
  • To check effect of the medicine in excess amounts use 2 tablets of that particular medicine.
  • Remember: This is just a sample from a fellow student.

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    Effect Of Medicines On The Internal Composition Of The Stomach Under The Condition Of Ulcer. (2019, September 13). GradesFixer. Retrieved November 28, 2021, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/effect-of-medicines-on-the-internal-composition-of-the-stomach-under-the-condition-of-ulcer/
    “Effect Of Medicines On The Internal Composition Of The Stomach Under The Condition Of Ulcer.” GradesFixer, 13 Sept. 2019, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/effect-of-medicines-on-the-internal-composition-of-the-stomach-under-the-condition-of-ulcer/
    Effect Of Medicines On The Internal Composition Of The Stomach Under The Condition Of Ulcer. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/effect-of-medicines-on-the-internal-composition-of-the-stomach-under-the-condition-of-ulcer/> [Accessed 28 Nov. 2021].
    Effect Of Medicines On The Internal Composition Of The Stomach Under The Condition Of Ulcer [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2019 Sept 13 [cited 2021 Nov 28]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/effect-of-medicines-on-the-internal-composition-of-the-stomach-under-the-condition-of-ulcer/
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