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Fish plays an important role in fighting hunger and malnutrition. Often referred to as “rich food for poor people,” fish provides essential nourishment. Fish is not only a source of proteins and healthy fats, but also a unique source of essential nutrients, including long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, iodine, vitamin D, and calcium. The multiple benefits of fatty fish high in omega-3s and small fish eaten completely containing nutrients in the skin and bones clearly illustrate seafood’s irreplaceable nutritional value.
Needless to say that, approximately 45% of the total fish landings can be considered as underutilized (FAO, 1981). These underutilized fish catch which includes by-catch, unconventional or unexploited fishes, are of low value due to their extreme heterogeneity in composition, bony structure, dark flesh, small size, unattractive appearance and texture, strong flavour etc. ( Venugopal, 1995; Pagarkar et al., 2011).
There is an increasing requirement for the fish processing industry to provide high protein foods at moderate prices. This is particularly true of the fish processing industry where high cost of fish products has stimulated research into ways to maximum utilization for human consumption. One outcome of this research has been the development of various techniques of extending and restructuring low economic value fishes to improve their textural properties and enhance market value.
Fish is a vital source of food but also a perishable commodity as its quality starts deteriorating immediately after death. This perishable nature of fish allows its better utilization and management practices. Recovering the meat is one of the ideal mean of utilization of fish for mince. (sweta, 2011)
Processed or minced based products such as burger, crab analogues, scallop analogues, shrimp analogue finger and sausages provide nutrition and cooking convenience to the consumer (Rahman et al., 2007). Consumer’s health can be potentially improved by consumption of health – promoting seafood products of high eating quality.
Surimi is a Japanese term which denoted ground fish meat paste formed during the manufacturing of the traditional surimi based product ‘kamaboko’ (Okada, 1992). In Japanese, ‘suru’ means ‘to process, ‘mash’ + ‘mi’ means ‘meat’ (Anon, 2000). However. the term at present denotes a wet concentrate of myofibrillar proteins of fish. When raw surimi is mixed with cryoprotectants and quick frozen into a block form. it is called frozen surimi, which is the preferred form of handling surimi such that now the term surimi generally denotes frozen surimi (Okada. 1992). Surimi is stabilized myofibrillar proteins concentrated through different processes like heading, gutting, mincing, washing, and dewatering (Lee, 1984; Park & Lin, 2005b). The concentrated myofibrillar protein is then mixed with cryoprotectants, such as sugar, sorbitol, and polyphosphates, which serve to stabilize the surimi during frozen storage (Park et al., 1987; Park et al., 1988).
The utilization of surimi increased drastically in recent times because of its unique texture, high protein and low fat content. Due to increased demand, substantial efforts are being made in many countries to study the suitability of other species for surimi production (Gopakumar et al., 1992; Kim et. al., 1996). Surimi is usually prepared from low fatty white meat with good gel forming ability to have an elastic texture and desirable characteristics like bland flavour and functional properties like emulsification properties, gel strength and elasticity. An elaborate processing schedule is necessary to get the desired quality washed mince and the washing process depends on the quality of mince from a particular fish. The gel forming ability of surimi decreases with an increase in water content (Lee, 1984).
In general, lean fish species used in India for production of surimi are mainly
threadfin bream (Nemipterus spp), bigeye snapper (Priacanthus spp.), croaker (Pennahia and Johnius spp.) and lizardfish (Saurida spp.). However, the main problem facing the surimi industry is the supply of raw materials, due to over exploitation of the lean fish. On other hand small pelagic fishes like sardine are landed in huge quantities. The use of such fish like, sardine species could be better alternative for lean fish. The pelagic and shoal fishes such as Sardinella longiceps and Sardinella fimbriata have bumper landings in Ratnagiri coast (CMFRI, 2013).
Increasingly, consumer are demanding more natural, minimally proceed products. To satisfy these requirements, one of the major challenges in the food industry consists of reducing conventional chemical additives in food formulation. In these sense, the alternative use of natural, plant product have been receiving more and more attention mainly because many of these product have additional functional properties. Many naturally occurring compound found in plant herb and spices. Naturally, derived plant phenolic compounds, especially in the oxidized form, have been shown to be the potential protein cross-linker (Rawel et al., 2002a). Rawel et al., (2002b), reported interactions of different phenolic acids and flavonoids with soy proteins. phenolic compounds are rich in hydroxyl groups, surimi gel can be strengthened via hydrogen bond and other interactions (Ali 2002). Polyphenols are the natural compounds, which are abundant in plants (Shahidi and Naczk, 2004). The interactions between phenolic compounds and proteins play an essential role in the processing of certain food products. In surimi, Gel-forming ability of frozen surimi is the most important functional requirement for imposing good quality of surimi-based products. Use the phenolic compounds in oxidized form to improve the gel strength of surimi’ Both pure phenolic compounds and crude plant phenolic extracts have been successfully used in surimi (Pagarkar et al.,2016 )
Tannin can be used as a food additive with the range of 10 to 400 mg/l, depending on the type of food to which it is added (Chen and Chung, 2000). Seaweed and mango leaves contains more phenol compound. The most commonly found seaweeds (Sargassum tenerrimum) along the Ratnagiri coast. Sargassum tenerrimum was the abundantly available throughout the year as compared with others. In seaweed a large number of potent antioxidant compounds polyphenols such as phenolic acid, flavonoid, tannins are available in huge quantity (Gaikwad et al., 2018a; Rathinam et al.,2015). Seaweed contain phenolic compound level up to 20 % of their dry weight (Connan and Stengel, 2007). Tannin substances with phenolic character occur in marine algae in the physodes of Phaeophyta, such as Sargassum species (Vimalabai et al., 2004). Mango (Mangifera indica) is one of the most important tropical plants.The mango leaves contain high amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids that assesses the possibility to utilize mango leaves as natural source for phenolic compound in food and industry (Elzaawely and Tawata, 2010). Mangifera indica leaves contain phenolic secondary metabolites, including gallic acid, quercetin 3-β-Dglucoside, α-tocopherol, 3-methyl-gallate, propyl gallate, propyl benzoate (+) catechin, (-) epicatechin, benzoic acid and D-glucose (Gaikwad et al.,2018b; Ganeriwala et al., 2016).
Gaikwad et al., (2018c) prepared water Soluble Mango (M. indica) Leaves Extract (WSMLE) containing phenolic compound was prepared from dry mango (M. indica) leaves powder. They studied the effects of WSMLE added at different percentage (0.5–2.5 %) extract in lesser sardine surimi from and properties of surimi gel were analyzed. In this investigation they reveals that the surimi added with 2.5 % WSMLE had showed better gel strength results as compared to other treatments and control (without addition of extract
In short, the interactions between phenolic compounds and proteins play a very important role in the processing of certain food products. Additionally, the use of phenolic compound in the appropriate form at a proper concentration would be a possible means to improve the surimi gel property, especially from low quality fish like lesser sardine. Therefore, locally available novel natural additives for surimi gel improvement can be used as the processing aid in surimi industry. The outcome of this research will be of great benefit for the surimi and surimi based products industry.
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