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Biota can be defined as the flora and fauna of a particular region, habitat or geological period. The main source of radiations is sun. Radiations are not always dangerous but sometimes they can be really dangerous, it depends on the type of radiation and its amount. There are two types of radiations
Non ionizing are mostly not dangerous but ionizing are dangerous. These radiations effect flora and fauna in different ways. (S. A. Gordon, Q. Rev. Biol. 32, 3 (1957)
Effects of radiations on plants
By experiments it is concluded that Plants are affected by the radiations when plants is in seed stage. So, plants are not affected by the little amount of radiations but when it comes to the large amount of radiations, it may damage the whole plant material. Radiations minimize the resistence of stomata. Stomata are a hole like structure in plants that contributes in the control of water level. If the plant is exposed in high radiations, stomata fail to open themselves. In this way the growth of plants is stunted. During exposure in radiations the genetic material in the cells of plants is badly affected so, there is hindrance in reproduction. As cells are damaged, chances of mutation increases, in this way affected plants are short with rotted leaves. Prolonged exposure may cause completely infertility.
In plants 20 t0 50% reduction in chlorophyll is found due to the UV light. (J. L. Ryan, “Ionizing Radiation: ” J. Invest. Dermatol. 132, 985 2012)Right amount of radiations can kill microorganisms. The seeds that are germinated before radiation exposure are not affected as much as dormant seeds. Nature had put special chemicals in the plant that protects them from dangerous radiations when they are basking. UV lights are known to cause the major damage to plants. Small change in its level may cause the devastating effect on earth. It affects plants in 2 ways. The first one is to damage the DNA and the second one is physiological and biochemical damage to plants. It includes the example of membrane destruction, effect on plant hormones, conformational changes in the membrane protein, photosynthesis. UVB is more common because its level is directly related to the ozone layer, as we know that ozone layer is depleting day by day so, the level of UVB increases too. If we talk about the crops, its yield affected badly by radiations especially UV-B.
Effect of radiations on higher animals is common because their exposure is higher than other organisms such as honey bees and flies etc. It is reported that high level of cesium-137 and Iodine-131 were found in Chernobyl accident. Many rodents were died simultaneously after leakage. Small amount of radionuclide may lead to death of animals. Animals cell that divides rapidly have more chances to damage. For example cells in bone marrow and lymphatic tissues.
Effect on humans
Although radiations play an important role in medical purposes. Cancer is treated with the radiation therapy known as proton beam therapy. John Brennan April 25, 20173.
Effect of radiations on aquatic life
The biological effects on aquatic and terrestrial life will be the same. There are more likely chances of having cancer. All humans have risk of 90% of getting sick because of cancer. As we know that radioactive material in ocean is very dilute and water absorb the radiations, if any type of exposure occurs in the body of organism, it will ingest the radioactive material.
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