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“The National School Safety Centre records one of the worst cases of school violence to have occurred in Beslan, Russia, in 2004, with 350 people killed, half of which were children” (Enyinnaya, 2016). Violence in school takes place in many areas on the world. However, not many people know about the roots of this issue. The causes of school violence divided into two main factors: subjective factors (using drugs and alcohol, poor educated, personality) and objective factors ( family, community and media).
Firstly, subjective factors related to character and knowledge. The teenager often has bad behaviour when they abuse of drugs or alcohol. Illegal substances contains a lot of materials that bring negative effects on their brain. They can make consumers do something uncontrollablly and unreasonablly. Moreover, they are angry easily whenever they see another person. Therefore, using drug or alcohol when they still go to school can result in school violence. Besides, the lack of education also leads to thinking wrong direction of bullying. They are usually impolite and rude in the way of their behaviour. In addition, people who have poor education tend to delinquency (Maguin & Loeber, 1996) because they do not have knowledge about laws. Another reason which can make a person or a team is likely to attack another person is personality traits. Their personal characteristics affect their activities in most situations. The shortage of confident and communication skill result in a person feel distance from their peers. Basically, students make a noise and abuse of violence to draw attention. However, it causes only bad their impression for other people.
The second is environment that impacts on bullying in school. The family has an important role in people’s life. Nowadays, instead of spending time on caring children, parents are busy with their jobs. Hence, teenagers do not have soft skills learned only in family and feel so lonely. Furthermore, children usually model what they see so if kids grow up in family of the community of violence they can be influenced and do the same. This issue will develop into school violence sooner or later. The risk also comes from violence media. The influence of violent games or television programs is remarkable if children watch in long times. They are attracted and imitate characters in games/ television programs. Many researchers indicate that on the average, children spend 28 hours to watch TV a week include more than 812 violent actors on television programs and 20 violent acts showed in cartoons per hour (Beresin, n.d.). This leads to physical force of children in school.
Effects of school violence
School violence occurs in many countries on the world with huge consequences. Any instance of crime or violence at school not only affects the individuals involved but also may disrupt the educational process and affect bystanders, the school itself, and the surrounding community (Bidwell, 2014). Victims can bear physical injury in short term but the mental injury is long term.
The first harm of violence in school is suffering in terms of body in some days or some week. Violence casualties could be hit, kicked or throw down on the ground at the low level. This situation does not end immediately, it least many days after thrashing. Even, at high level, they could be killed by weapons. At the moment, families of people who died are indirect victims regard to mental injury.
Secondly, students could impact on their mental health by school violence. According to Hawker and Boulton (2000), the effect sizes were calculated for the association between peer victimization and each form of maladjustment (depression, loneliness, generalized and social anxiety, and global and social self-worth) assessed. The results suggested that victimization is most strongly related to depression, and least strongly related to anxiety. There was no evidence that victimization is more strongly related to social than to psychological forms of maladjustment. The pains in mental are long term effect. Moreover, when no one is willing to help victims, they are more and more pessimistic because they must face with lonely. Victims will express some symptoms of depression like loss sleep and unsociable. When not dealing with problem, they tend to suicide to stop their suffering. Another negative influence of school violence on psychological is children could remove school. Children who have been victims of violence are more likely to drop out of high school before graduation than their friends, according to a new study co-authored by a Duke scholar and girls who had experienced childhood violence were 24 percent more likely to drop out less than boys who had experienced violence with 26 percent (Ogrurn, 2017). In contrast, if they continue to go to school, they will lose concentration on lessons and fail in examinations. While victims can overcome physical injury quickly, they must suffer the psychological injury in long term. In the beginning, they show worry and fear when they go to school. This issue become critical when victims lack of confidence and have depression. They are usually anti-social, keep themselves in safe zone, avoid talking, and feeling worthless. Especially, if victims under pressure in a long period, they could suicide to escape from violence.
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