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The teaching of listening comprehension has long been somewhat ignored and weakly skilled part of English in many EFL programs (Mendelsohn, 1994). Listening engage an active classes of interpreting and building intellect from equally verbal and non-verbal messages (Nunan, 1998). the actions that need them to distinguish two sounds or differentiate growing and lessening inflections. The treatment of the highest to the bottom of, on the other hand, submit to reading the meaning as willful by the speakers by ways of plans or structures of knowledge in the brain (Nunan, 1998). This view underlines the projection of basic knowledge that learners already possess in production logic of the information they listen to. In auditory perception, previous knowledge may facilitate their attempt to understand the information received by linking familiar with a new one, and a significant lack of knowledge can hinder their efforts to understand the particular speech. Therefore, it is essential that learners are accustomed to implementing this treatment, usually by extracting the essence of the exchange they head.
Because of the fact that the communicative approach is more and more used in EFL status, for that reason, we emphasizing the significance of learners” communicative competence. The want for capability in listening in EFL English language learners is growing, so that listening teaching has pressed significant intubation. Regrettably, English language teaching is still neglected because the teachers” concentration on grammar, vocabulary and reading. speaking and Listening skills are not important and teachers do not look to give notice to these skills whilst conniving their lessons. EFL English language learners have partial listening comprehension. Listening levels of learners are dissimilar from each other, for the reason that listening is precious by critical features. The most significant features that must be stressed are: the importance of listening, Use the most advanced listening teaching methods and study the theory of listening teaching. a lot of English language curriculum is used grammar-translation method for teaching. This method has been create poor to the difficulty for producing resourceful English listeners and speakers. Therefore, a new teaching method must be used to meet students” needs. This new method is called a communication approach. English should be educated as communication tool. It is now widely accepted that the capacity to listen to students must be at the centre of Educational practice, which is where teachers need to focus their efforts to improve their education. This is a major challenge for English language teachers. However, it is important to develop the English language communicational efficiency. The purpose of this approach is to improve the general language capacity of English students and the oral and audio proficiency. This research paper discusses the definition and importance of listening. Then, explain some methods of listening comprehension. After that, reviewed the Analysis of listening comprehension problems.Finally, general suggestions in teaching listening comprehension will discuss. The results of this study will be useful for educated learners to improve their ability to listening comprehension.
Research questions :
Q1 : – How to improve listening ?
Q2 : – why most of the students suffer from weakly listening ?
Definition of listening :
Longman (1987) defines Listening comprehension as the hardest material educated in foreign language. Underwood (1989) shorten the description of listening to the movement of give mind to and attempt to get meaning from something we listen to. Mendelsohn (1994) describe listening comprehension as the ability to grasp the spoken language of The original reformers. O‘Malley, Chamot, and Kupper (1989) Provide a useful and comprehensive definition that listening comprehension is an active and conscious process in which the listener make meaning by using cues from background in sequence and from open information, whilst the strategy relies on multiple resources to meet the requirements of the task. Mendelsohn (1994) refer to that, in listening to spoken language, the ability to decode the speaker‘s goal is request of a respective listener, in adding to other capabilities like handling language formats such as speed of speech and padding, And dealing with listening in the interaction, know the total point limited in the speech, understand the message without accepting all word, and know otherness types.
Purdy (1997) said the listening is the dynamic and active practice of present, understand, distinguish, detection, and answer to the articulated (verbal and nonverbal), wants, attention, and input existing by other person beings. Rost (2002) define listening as a procedure of getting what the speaker really says, building and stand for meaning, talking meaning with the speaker and reacting, and making meaning during connection, thinking and understanding. To sum it up, it is widely recognized that listening comprehension is not just a one-way process of receiving audio codes, but an interactive process (Brown, 2001).
Importance of listening:
Listening is one of the most widely used skills in the classroom (Ferris, 1998; Murphy, 1991& Vogely, 1998). Several studies indicated that effective listening skills were more important than reading skills as contributing factors to academic success (Coakley & Wolvin, 1997; Truesdale, 1990). Any person is using language well has a number of different capacity. maybe read a magazine, speak on the phone, write a massage, listen to the recorded, etc. in the common way, we can discover four major skills: listening and understanding, speaking, reading and understanding and writing (harmer,1983). Speaking and writing are clearly skills and include some types of production on the piece on the language user. Listening and reading are receptive skills in that the language user is receiving written or spoken language.
Teaching methods for listening comprehension:
Combining Listening with Other Skills:
According to the language acquisition theory, human capacity to differentiate between linguistic intent and linguistic content is a crucial step in the language acquisition process. Thus hearing the overall capacity plays an important role in acquiring and improving language skills. Therefore, in teaching listening, there is a need to combine the development of listening capacity with the development of other skills such as reading. In order to improve the listening ability it is essential to often listen to a well read teacher, because it is very difficult to generate high-quality output without proper input. Second, students need to practice reading aloud among themselves. Through this activity students will learn to combine the act of listening with reading. Students must actively participate in the production of a high quality language if they are to improve English proficiency levels. Similarly, by combining listening with writing, teachers can divide the work into two parts. First, students may answer teachers” questions in written English after listening to the spoken material. It is also important to remember that a good hearing entails remembering the substance of the article rather than the exact details. Thirdly, teachers should combine listening activities with speaking in ways that highlight the basics of verbal communication. Inevitably, listeners will lose information resources without speaking; their goal will be lost without careful listening, and as a result, the ability to speak will not be obtained. Listening and talking depends on each other and organizes each other. Itis important to enhance listening by talking and improving speaking through listening. Students need to
re-discuss and discuss the material they have just heard in order to gather their understanding. This way they learn to combine listening and speaking properly. Students able to do so are able to overcome their negative response to the situation and gradually learn to feel safe when responding. For this to happen, there is a need for a free and genuine interactive listening category. Emphasis should be placed on the exchange of teachers/students and students as opportunities for free exchange of views when participants can enhance the approach of listening and skills during the communication process. Through a variety of reading, listening, writing, listening and speaking activities, students can not only enhance their language skills but also sharpen their interests and increase their motivation to improve their learning proficiency.
_ Karakas (2002) provided for that listening activities often as pre-listening, while-listening, and post-listening activities.
Firstly, Pre-listening Activities Include the outline, the teacher can choose the specific words will be discussed in the subject and in this activity requires the student to predict the content through the previous words. Pre-listening activities usually have two primary objectives:
1. Help students learn and access the contents of the lesson.
2. Provide the context for the specific listening task.
Secondly, While-listening Activities. Listeners who actively participate in the listening experience are more likely to build a clear and precise meaning as they interpret the verbal message and non-verbal signals. During the experience of listening students check and revise their expectations. They make interpretations and judgments based on what they have heard. Ostrich may ask students to listen to the keynote words to determine the main points of the text. Students answer questions of understanding while listening to the text and specifying specific information to complete the table provided with the text. The following are usually for the activities that listen to the authorities: to focus the student’s understanding on the speaker’s language and ideas; to focus students” attention on such things as the organizational styles of the speaker; To encourage the critical reactions of students and personal responses to the ideas of the speaker and the use of language. It can be followed by open-ended activity that allows students to exercise the freedom to understand the hearing in the classroom about their daily lives and to request more information. It should begin to understand what students already know so that they can build on their existing knowledge and skills with activities designed on the same principle. The difference in the packaging process in the lost listening activity for words can be the use of the listening material itself, but to set the spouse’s work activity where the student A and B have the same worksheet where some elements of the information are missing.
Third, Post-listening Activities are important because they expand students” listening skills. Post-hearing activities are most effective when done immediately after the hearing experience. Well-planned post-employment activities provide opportunities for students to link what they have heard with their ideas and experiences, and to encourage thought-provoking, critical thinking and reflection. Post-employment activities also provide opportunities for teachers to assess and understand the students and to clarify their understanding. To extend understanding beyond the literal to the interpretive and critical levels. Different comprehension questions can be assigned to students to discuss after listening and students then swap the information to complete the “top tier scheme” and connect what every student has heard to get to the big picture. If there are any questions still unanswered during the first or second hearing, after the activity of exchanging information, the entire class can listen to the tape again. Then students try to find answers to questions you never understood before, rather than the teacher providing answers instantly.
The theory of situated cognition:
Where learning must occur in relevant contexts, it indicates that the audio is better than the text for these exercises because it is a verbal communication skill. We assume that audio training should increase the ability to extract important information in degraded audio environments from training text. We also assume, in keeping with our theory of steadfastness listening, that training with an artificial discourse will lead to a greater call than important communication under tense and more realistic conditions that are difficult to hear, representing conscripts who may face actual damage in monitoring the situation.
Another point of view encourages cognitive pregnancy management to teach advertising knowledge. If this applies to the training of other skills, it is suggested that coupling multiple methods (for example, audio and text) will lead to the best results. This may only work in this specific case because this training intervention does not have any other visual information on the screen other than the text input options (that is, any actual animation). We also assume that artificial speech without text, given the increase in cognitive load without multimedia management using captions, will result in less call than communications under circumstances where it is difficult to hear clearly. This set of hypotheses will include clarification as to whether an additional cognitive pregnancy leads to skill training improvements or if the management of cognitive pregnancy is the key. Neither of them appears to have been true, at least in the current situation. For skills, high fidelity seems more important. While this study examined sincerity in part of the manipulation of speech generation, and found that human sounds were optimized, further study of the theory of learning multimedia and acquiring skills as it relates to fidelity is warranted. In particular, further study should be explored on whether such findings should be disseminated through different methodologies. and apply cognitive load management to skills such as listening, or whether training under a more cognitive burden improves results.
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