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Plato studies the relationship between ‘flow’ and ‘eternity.’ Plato believes that everything in the world is fluid, which constitutes our material world. Things in the physical world will be eroded by time, food will rot, the human body will rot, and stones will be weathered. However, beyond the material world, there must be a ‘model’ or ‘form’ that makes up the basic matter of the material world, and these ‘forms’ or ‘models’ are eternal.Although Plato firmly believed that something must be eternal, in his view, that eternal thing should be a hidden abstract pattern for constructing everything.Therefore, Plato came to a conclusion: behind the material world, there must be a real existence. He called this existence a ‘rational world’ that contains eternal patterns that exist behind various phenomena in nature（philosophy now, 2012).Plato’s epistemology is generally considered to be objective idealism. Plato believes that we cannot have a real understanding of those changing and flowing things. We only have opinions or views on them. The only thing we can really understand is only those ‘forms’ or ‘forms’ that we can use our reason to understand. idea’. Therefore Plato believes that knowledge is fixed and affirmative, and there can be no wrong knowledge but opinions can be wrong. Plato thinks that the memories made through the media of feelings are not memories of a specific thing, but memories of the ‘self’ of things, that is, ideas. ‘When a thing is felt with sight, hearing, or other functions, it can be determined by this Feeling in my heart evokes another thing that has forgotten and has something to do with this thing. ‘So the memory is a rising process that needs to mobilize the subject’s initiative, and the so-called soul is the’ Dong Si pushing its own movement ‘, ‘The nature of the soul is automatic.’ This expresses the active principle of the subject in a priori way.
Elements of the Allegory of the Cave in the Republic Stone man, flame and shadow. The cave allegory is a story from Plato’s The Dreamland. The story is simple, but very intriguing.Plato tells us this story:
1: We always say that seeing is believing, but many things we see are only superficial, truth is always hidden in the depths
2: If we live in a certain circle, we are destined to be limited to a certain circle. If we don’t jump out of this circle, we will never see the truth.
3: Truth is subversive, crazy, and most people cannot accept it. Those who hold the truth are usually excluded from society.
The third point is what this story wants to illustrate. Just look at our human history. Copernicus’s heliocentric theory, Galileo’s Leaning Tower experiment, and many people who were burned to death with new ideas in the Middle Ages, especially Plato’s teacher Socrates, were also subverted because of remarks. Religion at the time was sentenced to death. Plato expressed this very connotatively with this story. At the same time we should also think about, is there such a lunatic in our lives? Is he crazy or really crazy?This Allegory is a parable of the dividing line of Plato.Plato’s idealism is the unity of ontology and teleology. As an ontology, it is necessary to show that only ideas are the real existence of things, and to try to discuss the logic of the world of ideas that consists of all ideas. As a teleology, it must clarify the purposefulness of ideas, and show the inherent prescribed meaning of the purpose to the essence of things. As a unity of ontology and teleology, its elaboration of the logic of the ideal world itself is arranged in accordance with a teleological hierarchy. All this constitutes the most basic theoretical core of Plato’s idealism, and also constitutes the main content of Plato’s discussion of dialogue works of mid-term idealism.
The meaning of the golden mean is an impartial, compromised and harmonious attitude towards life. The theme of the Golden Mean is to educate people to consciously carry out self-cultivation, self-supervision, self-education, self-improvement, and cultivate themselves into ideal personality. Virtue ethics has irreplaceable value and status in the study of ethics.Aristotle considers virtue to be a state of quality, which reflects a certain way or attitude in which the owner of virtue handles emotions. All virtues are about emotions and actions. How to judge whether the state of quality is a virtue or a bad habit depends on whether the person with this quality deals with the corresponding moral emotions appropriately and appropriately. In Aristotle’s words, it is whether he abides by the middle way. Virtue is the quality of finding the right midpoint for emotion and action, neither excessive nor inferior（The Nicomachean Ethics, Book II，Page2）.An example of the Golden Mean is when a person has a lot of money, if he spends all the money at once, this is waste and indulgence. But it’s stingy if one doesn’t spend any money. A person is best if he can neither waste money nor be stingy. This is the Golden Mean. Context and habit also important. The surrounding context has a great influence on people. If everyone around you has a good virtue, then you will also be affected. You will be a good virtue.Good virtues develop slowly. Only when people develop good habits and do everything well in the end will they have a good virtue.
The three types of soul are the nutritive soul, the sensible soul, and the rational soul（Aristotle）. Aristotle divided his soul into three categories: plants have only growing souls, animals have perceptual souls, and people have rational souls. From plants to people, the level of soul is getting higher and higher. Higher souls include the functions of lower souls. These three levels of souls have existed since the beginning of the world. The species and genera of the organism are constant.On Three Souls and Three Educations. Based on his philosophy, Aristotle constructed his theory of soul. He believes that man has three souls: rational soul, irrational soul and plant soul. The rational soul is mainly manifested in the aspects of thinking, understanding, and judgment. It is the intellectual part of the soul. The irrational soul is mainly manifested in instinct, emotion, desire, etc., and is the animal part of the soul, also known as animal soul. The plant soul is mainly reflected in the physiological aspects of organism growth, nutrition, and development, and is the plant part of the soul. Animal souls are intermediate and plant souls are the lowest. The low-level soul contains more materials and less forms; the higher-level soul contains less materials and more forms. Everyone has these three souls, and from the birth to the adult, they present a plant soul, an animal soul, and a rational soul. That is to say, the child’s main body development and growth before and after birth. When he is a little older, he shows his instinctual needs and emotional needs. When he is an adult, he has the ability to think, understand, and judge.
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