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The hiring and promotion is the starting phase of employment. Every employer wants their best people for their organization. Employer and their agent start to seek the people through their job matching process to fulfil their vacant place. Following the cultural logic of rational efficiency that dominates the modern work world, employers typically want to hire the best people for their vacant place. The concept of the best employee, for that employer and their agents, develop the ideal worker image and their importance and traits, what they actually want to hire.
There is a different way to employers communicates information about the availability of employment opportunities to the public and the person who is interested they can reach with their desire and application to the employer. The different recruitment methods want to advertisement in Newspaper, Social media, Job postings on internet, Employment agencies, Jobs fairs, Referral etc.
During the hiring and promotion, when the employer and their agent develop the image of the ideal worker, gender play the main role in their imagination, they have already in their mind the ideal worker would be a man or women. Therefore, the image of the ideal worker will be the influence of cultural belief on gender, so here ideal worker will be the more precisely either the male or female stereotype. In this sense, it is more difficult for the applicant’s with other sex to appear equally competent and ‘ideal’ for the job.
The existing sex-segregated structure of the labour market always separates the work within the gender. The job is filled often to them who are already working in a certain workplace or the wider labour market to be known as one sex. This kind of structure already divides the work area for the two different genders (e.g. the nursing job is to know as a female job and manual labour is prefer to man). This structure is based on the cultural belief on the gender and it’s effectively salient for both applicants and the employers through the hiring and promotion process. Research also shows that gender stereotype of sex that is most prominent in jobs tends to bias the images of competence and traits of the ideal worker for that jobs.
Applicant to Jobs In this matching process, after receiving an application, the employer and their agent trying to compare the applicant with the ‘ideal’ worker what they have the image. They compare the competence and traits within this two (actual applicant and the image of the ideal worker) and looking it’s fit with the ideal worker’s or not.
This case study is taken from the chapter ‘The feminization of agriculture?: the impact of economic restructuring in rural Latin America’ which is written by Carmen Diana Deere and publish in ‘Gendered impacts of liberalization’, edited by Shahra Razavi. In this case studies, we can see the how women employment is taken place in the agriculture sector and the reason behind the employers preferred to women worker for this jobs. The feminization of agricultural wage employment is largely due to the fact that the growth in agricultural employment has been limited to non-traditional agro-exports, the most dynamic activity in an era of neoliberalism.
The new crop and product of agriculture are more labour-intensive than the old traditional agro-export and work is needed more flexible because the labour forces are needed only in the few months of the year. In this case, only a few labours will be needed for full time but sessional labour demand is high and for the sessional labour women demand is high, women have become preferred workers, especially for the packing vegetable and fruits exports.
This case study shows that, with this new production of agriculture, the percentage of women employment is the increase in packing houses and flower-cut production from 40 to 60 per cent of the field labour. To a limited extent, women have preferred worker because their socialization has made them into a flexible worker, so they are accepted to work in sessional short-term employment, they are flexible in working days, the fact that they are adept in flexibility combining productive and reproductive activity. Gender socialization also produces a skill (calmness, dexterity, humbleness) in women, which is really important for the high production for this competitive market. Women have all the quality and skill for this job but they are devalued and workforce women are cheaper to hire than the man. In spite of that the available data on the gender wage gap is mixed. ‘A wage gap in the range of 80 to 90 per cent in agro-export production is frequently cited although some cases of near gender wage parity have also been noted’. There is little direct discrimination on wage rate while man and women are performing the same task (generally when man and women both working on piece-rates), differentiate on the earning wage within man and women are usually results of occupational segregation by gender. Man occupation is more varied than women occupation and the daily or monthly wages also different, so overall man is earning higher than women. The vast majority of supervisory positions and permanent job placement are occupied by men, while at the same time, women worker are getting less opportunity for advancement, with perhaps the exceptional case of the flower industry.
The above case study shows the ground reality of the gender preferences in the hiring process and how employer makes their view or an image of an ideal worker on the particular job. In this case study, we can see the how occupational segregation by gender will be created.
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