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Esterification and Recovery of Biodiesel Mediated by Biological Catalyst

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Generation of bio fuel: Bio fuels for transport are commonly addressed according to their current or future availability as first, second or third generation biofuels. Second and third generation bio fuels are also called “advanced” bio fuels.

First-generation biofuels are commercially produced using conventional technology. The Basic feed stocks are seeds, grains, or whole plants from crops such as corn, sugar cane, rapeseed, wheat, sunflower seeds or oil palm. These plants were originally selected as food or fodder and most are still mainly used to feed people. The most common first-generation bio fuels are bio ethanol (currently over 80% of liquid bio fuels production by energy content), followed by biodiesel, vegetable oil and biogas.

Second-generation bio fuels can be produced from a variety of non-food sources. These include waste biomass, the stalks of wheat, corn Stover, wood, and special energy or biomass crops (e.g. Miscanthus). Second-generation bio fuels use biomass to liquid (BtL) technology, by thermo chemical conversion (mainly to produce biodiesel) or fermentation (e.g. to produce cellulosic ethanol). Many second-generation biofuels are under development such as bio hydrogen, bio methanol, DMF, Bio-DME, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, bio hydrogen diesel, and mixed alcohols.

Third-generation bio fuel: Algae fuel, also called oilgae, is a bio fuel from algae and addressed as a third-generation bio fuel. Algae are feed stocks from aquatic cultivation for production of triglycerides (from algal oil) to produce biodiesel. The processing technology is basically the same as for biodiesel from second-generation feedstocks. Other third -generation bio fuels include alcohols like bio-propanol or bio-butanol, which due to lack of production experience are usually not considered to be relevant as fuels on the market before 2050, though increased investment could accelerate their development. The same feedstocks as for first-generation ethanol can be used, but using more sophisticated technology. Propanol can be derived from chemical processing such as dehydration followed by hydrogenation. As a transport fuel, butanol has properties closer to gasoline than bio ethanol.

Need of biodiesel: As we know that petroleum is a non-renewable fuel as it is made from fossil sources a substance that are limited. Due to the increase in the price of petroleum and environmental concern about pollution coming from automobile emission, biodiesel is an emerging as a developing area of high concern the world confronted the twin crises of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. As energy demand increases and fossil fuel (non-renewable energy resources) are limited, Due to limited amounts of fossil fuels and increasing concerns of global warming, there is ever- growing force to develop fuel substitutes that are renewable and sustainable.

Bio Energy: Bio energy is one of the so-called renewable energies. It is the energy that is contained in living or recently living biological organisms. Bio-energy is obtained from organic matter, either directly from plants or indirectly from industrial, commercial, domestic or agricultural products and waste. The use of bio energy is generally classed as a carbon-neutral process because the carbon dioxide released during the generation of energy is balanced by that absorbed by plants during their growth. The term bio-energy really covers two areas: bio-fuel which is the transformation of plant materials into liquid fuel, and bio-mass, where solid plant materials are burnt in a power plant and this process creates energy, which can then be for immediate use or stored. Advanced and efficient conversion technologies now allow the extraction of bio fuels besides the traditional use of bio energy; “Modern bio energy” comprises bio fuels for transport, and processed biomass for heat and electricity production.

Biomass Energy: Biomass is the name given to all the earth’s living matter. It is a general term for material derived from growing plants or from animal manure (which is effectively a processed form of plant material). It is a rather simple term for all organic material that stems from plants (including algae), trees and crops. Biomass energy is derived from plant and animal material, such as wood from natural forests, waste from agricultural and forestry processes and industrial, human or animal wastes. Plants absorb solar energy, using it to drive the process of photosynthesis, which enables them to live. The energy in biomass from plant matter originally comes from solar energy through the process known as photosynthesis. The energy, which is stored in plants and animal (that eat plants or other animals), or in the wastes that they produce, is called biomass energy. This energy can be recovered by burning biomass as a fuel. During combustion, biomass releases heat and carbon dioxide that was absorbed while the plant was growing.

Essentially, the use of biomass is the reversal of photosynthesis. Therefore, the energy obtained from biomass is a form of renewable energy and, in principle, utilizing this energy does not add carbon dioxide to the environment, in contrast to fossil fuels. Biomass can be used directly (e.g. burning wood for heating and cooking) or indirectly by converting it into a liquid or gaseous fuel (e.g. alcohol from sugar crops or biogas from animal waste). Biomass is used in a similar way to fossil fuels, by burning it at a constant rate in a boiler furnace to heat water and produce steam. Liquid bio fuels, such as wheat, sugar, root, rapeseed and sunflower oil, are currently being used in some member states of the European Union. Biomass provides a clean, renewable energy source that could dramatically improve our environment, economy and energy security. Biomass energy generates far less air emissions than fossil fuels, reduces the amount of waste sent to landfills and decreases our reliance on foreign oil. Biomass energy also creates thousands of jobs and helps revitalize rural communities.

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ESTERIFICATION AND RECOVERY OF BIODIESEL MEDIATED BY BIOLOGICAL CATALYST [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2019 Feb 27 [cited 2022 Jun 24]. Available from:
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