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Eutrophication is also known as hypertrophication is the phenomena where enrichment of excess nutrients in water body such as river and lake results in deterioration of water quality.in recent days, this phenomena become worsen due to activities of human being such as cultural eutrophication. The cultural eutrophication consists of continuous usage of fertiliser which mainly made up of nitrogen and phosphorus until trigger structural changes in water bodies. This process induces the growth of algae due to biomass load may lead to depletion of oxygen in water body. The phenomena can caused by the discharge of phosphate- containing detergents, fertilizers and untreated sewage into water bodies.
There are a few factors that contribute to eutrophication. On my personal opinion, eutrophication is caused by enrichment of nutrients drained into water body. Sources are further divided into point source and non- point source that will arise enrichment of nutrients. Point source pollution is pollution that comes from discharge of containments that drained into water body at specific fixed location such as industrial sewage and farms whereas non- point source defined as pollution from widespread including human activities that will discharge into water body at non-specific location. Leaching of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphate is the one of the example of non-point source pollution. The usage of fertilizers such as nitrates and phosphate is major cause of eutrophication in our country. The eutrophication is normally caused by activities of human due to usage of fertilizers.
Agricultural activities contribute accumulation of phosphate and nitrate. During rainy season, nutrients are washed and drained into water body.The aquatic plants are well fed and their activities of photosynthesis is increased. This will leads to dense growth of algal blooms and plant life such as hyancinths. Concentrated animal feeding operation is a factor of eutrophication.The concentrated animal feeding operations normally discharge high amount of the nutrients that find way into water bodies such as rivers, streams and lake where they accumulate in high concentration thereby plaguing the water bodies by promoting algal and cyanobacterial blooms. futhermore, discharge of untreated sewage into water bodies will cause severe eutrophication.the developing nation like our country, sewage water is discharged directly into water bodies will increase the level of nutrients thereby promoting the algal bloom and threaten survival of aquatic life. In our country,it may also treat the sewage water but still discharge it into water bodies after treatment.As much as sewage is treated can still cause accumulation of excess nutrients will leads to eutrophication.
Aquiculture is the one of technique of growing shellfish, fish and even aquatic plants is placed in water containing dissolved nutrients. If aquiculture is not managed,the waste products such as fish excretion can significantly increase levels of nutrients in water thereby promoting dense algal blooms. Moreover, natural disasters such as floods and the natural flow of rivers and streams can also wash all nutrients off the land into water systems thus cause algal bloom. Accumulation of sediments contribute to the explosive development and growth of phytoplankton and algal blooms. The eutrophication will occur when level of nutrients increases in an aquatic ecosystem,algae and cyanobacteria begin used it up immediately.Their population increases rapidly and causes algal bloom.Algal blooms limit the sunlight availability to bottom-dwelling organisms in ecosystem.
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