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Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterial mycobacterial microarrophylic that the pathogenic bacteria reside selectively in the epithelium of the stomach. This bacterium is responsible for diseases such as gastric cancer, lymphoma, gastritis and gastrointestinal ulcers. H.Pylori colonization produces chronic superficial gastritis and basically all people with H. pylori colonized have gastric inflammation, but less than 10% of these people suffer from associated illnesses, such as peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma or stomach lymphoma. (1) After entering Helicobacter pylori to the body, the bacteria attack the membrane of the stomach. When the bacterium carries significant damage to the membrane of the stomach, gastric acid can enter the membrane and cause stomach ulcers. Following the onset of acute active gastritis, the gastric mucosa suffers from a series of gradual and sequential changes, which, after the onset of chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, become gastric adenocarcinoma-type cancers. (2)
The relationship between Helicobacter Pylori’s pathogenic factors and clinical outcomes: the spread of the disease depends on the pathogenicity of bacterial strains, host susceptibility and Co-factors. Among the diseases caused by this bacterium, cancer is of great importance. (3)
To induce cancer, the bacterium has pathogenicity factors such as CagA, VacA, OipA, and so on. (4) Cag A interacts with the host cell communication and causes multiple changes in the skeleton of the cell, and other factors, with their own mechanisms, induce gastric cancer. (5)
Gastric cancer after lung cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the world. (6) Gastric cancer is uncontrolled growth of malignant tumor in the stomach (cancer stem cells), in which most people do not show any symptoms until the advanced stages of the disease. (6)
One of the molecules that is changed in the pathogenicity of the Helicobacter pylori bacteria in the host body is miRNA. Micro-RNAs are a group of non-coding RNA molecules ranging from 21 to 23 nucleotides that control their target genes at post-transcriptional levels. (7) These molecules play a role in vital cellular processes such as proliferation, cell aging, apoptosis, metabolism, and cellular differentiation, as well as the pattern of expression of miRNAs varies in different tissues. (7) One of the most important issues related to microRNA is the identification of target molecules. The creation of a few complementary pairings is essential for functional interaction between the microRNA and the target sequence. (8, 9).
Several studies have shown that the expression of miRNA in natural tissues is different from tumor tissues and also varies among tumor types. (10)
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