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Waterfall approach is the traditional software development method that is not preferred to be used nowadays because it is quite slow and costly. In this method, the current phase must be finished before they can start the next phase. Once the next phase started, the previous phase cannot be modified. Waterfall methods are suitable to be used when the project has detailed goals and requirements.
Rapid Application Development (RAD) is a condensed development process that produces a high-quality system with low investment costs via prototyping. In this method, the design and construction phases are repeated until the user requirements are met. RAD is effective to use in small projects with limited time given.
Agile software development (Agile) is a collection of software development methodologies that promote adaptive planning, evolutionary development and delivery, continuous improvement, and aimed to minimize risks by implementing time-boxed period time (iterations) to complete a body of work. The examples of agile development methodologies are Scrum and eXtreme Programming(XP). Many successful companies in IR 4.0 such as Apple and Philips use agile methodology to develop their software.
Scrum is an iterative and incremental agile software development framework for managing product development. In Scrum, the project will be split up into timeboxes called Sprint, and the team will plan in detail the task that need to be done in each Sprint in order to meet the requirements. Once all teams agreed and complete the certain tasks in given time frame, the development team will take over the job and complete the remaining tasks. Scrum is self-organized but it is facilitated by Scrum Master, who encourages and guides the team to achieve the sprint goal. Scrum is often used when the end-product is unclear or there are no proper feedbacks given by clients to meet the requirements.
EXtreme Programming (XP) was created to avoid the development of functions that are not currently needed and reduce the costs of software essentials. In comparison with the other approaches, XP requires more time and human resources. Therefore, it is perfect for complicated projects. Unlike Waterfall methodology, where the requirements for the system are determined, XP means that the cost of changing the requirements at a later stage in the project can be very high. This is because some clients need to deliver the product in certain deadlines but they have no idea on how the product should work. In Extreme Programming, the extreme programmers will write the code that will meet the present requirements for the project. Then, they will test the code. The test will be written before the code is written. If the code passes the test, it means the code is successful.
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