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One criticism over the study, and the relationship between the ability to track eye movements, is that ADHD is one of the most commonly disorder that is misdiagnosed. To further a study into the relationship of empirically monitoring temporal expectation and ADHD, researches could start to track and collect data from a younger age. This could present the gradual symptoms of ADHD. Researchers can learn the common characteristics with one group to another. One group of children would range from different ages, all in different developmental stages. Doing this, scientists can track attention and cognitive attributes, to make a timeline of how ADHD would develop if they were presented with the diagnostic.
When the shapes appeared at regular, predictable intervals the participants of the control group responded more quickly than when the shapes were appearing at varied intervals. Despite this, the reaction times of those with ADHD did not change or improve under the predictable conditions of repetitive intervals. The researchers found that the control group tended to have fewer eye movements immediately before the predicted event. In those in the ADHD group, did not show the same eye movement pause or “slowdown” in preparation for an upcoming stimulus. The researchers found that an ADHD diagnosis was not the best predictor of an individual’s ability to stay focused on the task. Documentation of that only some of the individuals with ADHD struggle with difficulties in focused attention throughout a monotonous task. It was revealed that the individual ability to stay focused throughout the task was a better predictor for the attenuation of eye movements, even if a person was diagnosed with ADHD.
In Yuval-Greenberg’s study, eye movements were recorded through a stream of controlled shapes on a monitor. The eye is always moving, even if a person tries to refrain from it. In his study he observed that a repetition of eye movements is temporarily paused before an event that has been anticipated from the participant. The study was performed with two groups, 20 participants of people with ADHD, and 20 individuals who didn’t have symptoms of ADHD. The experimental group was asked not to take any medication to help subside their ADHD symptoms for 24 hours. They were shown a collection of shapes of different colors on a screen while their eye movements were monitored. The participants were instructed to press a key when they saw a red square, which was monitored to be shown 25% of the time. In the first day the intervals were predictable, each shape showing every two seconds. On day two, time intervals were varied, however, the rules of pressing a key only for a red square remained the same.
In this particular study, scientists will use a technique to measure micro movements of the eyes. This could help scientists better understand and with hopes of eventually improving assessment and diagnosis of ADHD. Recent evidence explains that small involuntary eye movements, also known as saccades and microsaccades, can be used as a new tool for collecting valuable data for surfacing the mental connections like anticipation, as well as attention, and cognitive processes. There are different eye movements in those who have been diagnosed with ADHD, which leads into impairments in individuals with the disorder. The study that was performed collected and documented eye movements giving scientists a new method for empirically monitoring temporal expectation of those with the diagnosis and lifestyle of ADHD.
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