Factors of the prevalance of Thalassemia: [Essay Example], 881 words GradesFixer

Haven't found the right essay?

Get an expert to write you the one you need!


Professional writers and researchers


Sources and citation are provided


3 hour delivery

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers.

Factors of the Prevalance of Thalassemia

Download Print

Pssst… we can write an original essay just for you.

Any subject. Any type of essay.

We’ll even meet a 3-hour deadline.

Get your price

121 writers online

Download PDF

Thalassemia is the name of a group of genetically inherited blood disorder passed down through families in which the body makes an abnormal from of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. It results in excessive destruction of red blood cells, which leads to anemia. It is not infectious and cannot be passed from one individual to the other by personal or any other contact, or through blood transfusion, food or air. Hemoglobin is made out of different parts. The main are called alpha chains and beta chains which are put together to make the hemoglobin molecule. In thalassemia, part of the hemoglobin is faulty – usually either the alpha chains or the beta chains. This means that some of the hemoglobin does not work properly.as a result, there is not enough normal hemoglobin and the red blood cells break down easily. This makes the person lacking in hemoglobin, with various symptoms. Meanwhile, the body tries to make more hemoglobin and more red blood cells. So the blood system goes into overproduction mode which can cause more symptoms and complications.Thalassemia affects approximately 4.4 of every 10,000 live births throughout the world. They occur at a high frequency in Africa and the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. According to the Sri Lanka Thalassemia most prevalent in the Kurunegala, Kandy, Puttalam, Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Matale and Nuwara Eliya districts. The highest number of patients has been recorded from the Kurunegala District. The main types of thalassemia are called alpha thalassemia and beta thalassemia.

Alpha thalassemia – people who do not produce enough alpha globin protein have alpha thalassemia. It is commonly found is Africa, the middle east, India, southeast Asia, southern china, and occasionally the Mediterranean region. Alpha globin is made by four genes. Two on each strand of the chromosome 16. Individuals who have one or two abnormal alpha globin genes have alpha thalassemia trait.Beta thalassemia – people who do not produce enough beta protein have beta thalassemia. It is in people of Mediterranean decent such as Italians and Greeks, and is also found in the Arabian peninsula, Iran, Africa, southeast Asia, and southern china. Beta globin is made by two genes, one on each chromosome 11. Individuals who have one abnormal beta globin gene have beta thalassemia trait.

Each type of thalassemia is then classified into more types. According to how severe the condition is. This mainly depends on how many thalassemia genes are involved. The mildest types are called thalassemia trait. The more severe beta types are beta thalassemia major (BTM) and beta thalassemia intermedia (BTI). The more severe alpha forms are Hb Barts and HbH disease. There are several tests that are conducted to confirm a suspected case of thalassemia, including a complete blood count (CBC) and a hemoglobin electrophoreses. These should be followed by a genetic analysis for both beta thalassemia and alpha thalassemia, even if initial results already indicate that either beta thalassemia or alpha thalassemia is a likely diagnosis.

Beta thalassemia major

A person with BTM has two beta-thalassemia genes. Most of their hemoglobin is abnormal and does not work. This causes severe anaemia starting around the age of 4-6 months. Before that, the baby is not affected. This is because until age 3-6 months the baby makes a different type of hemoglobin, called fetal hemoglobin, which is not affected by the thalassemia gene. With BTM, you need regular blood transfusions, plus other treatment to prevent complications.There are two main treatments.blood transfusions an chelation treatment.

Blood transfusions are started if person have anaemia plus other symptoms, such as poor growth, not feeding well or other problems. Blood transfusions give normal red blood cells to the person with BTM. This corrects the anaemia for a while, which improves health and helps children to grow normally. However, the red blood cells have a limited lifespan. So, transfusions normally to be repeated every 3-4 weeks.The iron in the transfused blood cells builds up in a condition known as “iron overload” and becomes toxic to tissues and organs, particularly the liver and heart. Iron overload typically results in the patient’s early death from organ failure. It is monitored by estimating serum ferritin levels regularly and if the levels exceed, the patient should be started be iron chelating agents. It is the major cause of morbidity for thalassemic patients. Even non-transfused patients develop iron overload secondary to increased intestinal absorption of dietary iron, it causes mortality and organ injury. There are two goals of iron chelation therapy. The binding of toxic non-transferrin bound iron in the plasma and the removal of iron from the body. The compliance with chelation therapy is vital for the thalassemic patient’s long term survival. Many patients find the administration of desferal so difficult that they do not keep up with it or abandon treatment altogether. It they do not have access to another. Chelating option, this is extremely dangerous. Lack of compliance with chelation therapy leads to accelerated health problems and early deathThalassemia is a costly disease. It is a disease which needs lifelong therapy. Thalassemia therapy includes regular blood transfusion, administration of several medications such as iron chelating agents and other concomitant medications. The cost of therapy in these patients as well as any other disease does not only cover medication cost.

infoRemember: This is just a sample from a fellow student.

Your time is important. Let us write you an essay from scratch

100% plagiarism-free

Sources and citations are provided

Find Free Essays

We provide you with original essay samples, perfect formatting and styling

Cite this Essay

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

Factors of the prevalance of Thalassemia. (2018, December 17). GradesFixer. Retrieved February 26, 2021, from https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/factors-of-the-prevalance-of-thalassemia/
“Factors of the prevalance of Thalassemia.” GradesFixer, 17 Dec. 2018, gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/factors-of-the-prevalance-of-thalassemia/
Factors of the prevalance of Thalassemia. [online]. Available at: <https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/factors-of-the-prevalance-of-thalassemia/> [Accessed 26 Feb. 2021].
Factors of the prevalance of Thalassemia [Internet]. GradesFixer. 2018 Dec 17 [cited 2021 Feb 26]. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/factors-of-the-prevalance-of-thalassemia/
copy to clipboard

Sorry, copying is not allowed on our website. If you’d like this or any other sample, we’ll happily email it to you.

    By clicking “Send”, you agree to our Terms of service and Privacy statement. We will occasionally send you account related emails.


    Attention! this essay is not unique. You can get 100% plagiarism FREE essay in 30sec

    Recieve 100% plagiarism-Free paper just for 4.99$ on email
    get unique paper
    *Public papers are open and may contain not unique content
    download public sample

    Sorry, we cannot unicalize this essay. You can order Unique paper and our professionals Rewrite it for you



    Your essay sample has been sent.

    Want us to write one just for you? We can custom edit this essay into an original, 100% plagiarism free essay.

    thanks-icon Order now

    Hi there!

    Are you interested in getting a customized paper?

    Check it out!
    Having trouble finding the perfect essay? We’ve got you covered. Hire a writer

    GradesFixer.com uses cookies. By continuing we’ll assume you board with our cookie policy.