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Facts to Know About Volcanoes

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What scares you? For me it’s volcanoes. They can blow at any time and wipe out millions of people and destroy buildings. What do you think is scary about a volcano? What, you don’t know what a volcano is? Well, you are in luck! I’ll tell you.

What is Magma?

Where does it come from? Magma is a mixture of different gases, liquid rock and crystallized minerals. Magma is beneath the earth’s surface deep down where it is really hot. In the Earth, the magma is sealed but sometimes it reaches the surface. Magma is the same as lava but when magma reaches the surface and leaves the inside of the Earth, then it is called lava.

What are a Crater and a Side Vent?

Magma is what forms a volcano and what comes out of a crater and a side vent. A side vent is like the crater but only some magma and ash come out. The main vent is the crater. This is where the eruption happens and this is where almost all the ash rocks and magma flows out. The crater is mostly found on the top of the volcano. The crater forms when the eruption has taken place and when the rock cools down to form the crater.

How are Volcanoes made?

The crater is located at the top of a volcano. Next is how volcanoes are made. When weakness and cracks occur on the earth’s surface, those spots allow magma to reach the surface. When the magma reaches the surface it causes an eruption. When the magma cools, it forms a volcano and with more eruptions the bigger it gets. Volcanoes can also be found at hotspots. The hotspots are weak areas underneath the earth’s surface.

The crater from the volcano in Hawaii named Haleakala. The volcano is 10,023 feet high. The crater measures 7 miles wide and is 800 feet deep.

What happens during an Eruption?

Volcanoes are caused by magma and that’s the same source of an eruption. An eruption happens when magma reaches the surface. The magma goes through the magma chamber where it is let out through vents or the crater. The types of eruptions can change since we do not know what the lava type it will be until after it erupts. Lava has different gases and silica in the magma. This lava may come out in streams or it may have rocks shot out with lava and ash depending on what the mix is.

What are types of Volcanoes are there?

The eruption does decide what type of volcano eruption but the lava shape the type of volcano.

There are a lot different kinds of volcanoes but the main three are strato, shield and dome. A strato volcano is where the volcano’s sides are steep and look like a cone. Why it looks like this is because there are layers of ash making up the volcano besides the lava layers. Shield volcanoes have easy sloping sides. The sides are broad and sloping is because they were formed by only lava flows. Dome volcanoes are smallest because they are made only of thick lava that can’t flow very far.

What are some of the worst Eruptions?

One of the worst eruptions happened in 1883. The eruption happened on an Indonesian island in Sumatra. The eruption killed 100,000 and lead to starvation because of the ash and more eruptions. The ash in the air lasted around three years and there was 400 million tons of gas so it made the temperatures around the world drop around 3 degrees Celsius which killed crops and plants because of the cold. After learning about volcanoes, I am still scared but I know what to watch out for. I hope you know enough about volcanoes that you aren’t scared but will take them seriously. If not, I challenge you to.

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