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Government Schemes For Housing And Its Challenges

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Abstract

The government schemes reduce the poverty ratio of India. The Government implemented many schemes for the welfare of the below poverty line families. In order to increase the target the following schemes are implemented by the Government. In this paper explain the history of rural housing programs, key features, types of Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana (PMAY) report card and Government schemes for housing. Indira Awas Yojana, Integrated low-cost sanitation scheme, National urban livelihoods mission, Rajiv Awas Yojana, Affordable housing in partnership.

History of rural housing programs in India

Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) programme was implemented on 1st January 1996 for housing needs of the Below Poverty Line (BPL) households. To removing rural housing gaps, it was restructured into Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana (PMAY) in 1st April 2016. In the scheme, it has two approaches: Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban) (PMAY-U) for the urban poor and Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana (Gramin) (PMAY-G) for the rural poor. These schemes also focused on houses have toilet facilities, electricity connection, LPG gas connection, to drinking water facilities and Jan Dhan banking facilities, etc.

Key features of PMAY

  1. Providing assistance for construction of 1.00 crore houses in rural areas over the period of 3 years from 2016-17 to 2018-19.
  2. The minimum unit (house) size enhanced from 20 sq. m (under IAY) to 25 sq. m including a dedicated area for hygienic cooking.
  3. Provision of assistance (Rs. 12,000/-) for toilets through convergence with Swacch Bharat Mission – Gramin (SBM-G), MGNREGA or any other dedicated source of funding.
  4. Convergence with other Government schemes for the provision of basic amenities viz., toilet, drinking water, electricity, clean & efficient cooking fuel, treatment of social and liquid waste etc.

Phases

PMAY Phase-1 from April 2015 to March 2017 to cover 100 cities.

PMAY Phase-2 from April 2017 to March 2019 to cover additional 200 cities.

PMAY Phase-3 from April 2019 to March 2019 to cover the remaining cities.

Pmay report card

A. Physical progress report

  1. Year wise house completed report
  2. High -level physical progress report
  3. A Gap between Stages: Target to Account Verification
  4. A Gap between Stages: Account Verification to House completion
  5. Gap in an entry of Targets
  6. Panchayat wise incomplete houses

B. Financial progress report

  1. Annual target and allocation
  2. Unit assistance and installment details
  3. High- level financial progress report
  4. Available fund as per MIS
  5. Sanction order [2018-19][2017-18]

C. Social progress reports

  1. Gender-wise houses sanctioned and completed
  2. Category-wise houses sanctioned and completed

D. GIS Report

  1. Category-wise SECC data summary
  2. Status of priority list verification by the gram sabha
  3. Status of Mapped SECC villages to GPs of AwaasSoft
  4. Category-wise SECC data verification summary

E. SECC Report

  1. Scheme -wise and inspection level wise status of mobile app data
  2. Abstract Mobile Inspection Report

F. E-FMS Report

  1. Account verification abstract
  2. Fund transfer order (FTO) abstract
  3. DSC enrollment status [New]
  4. Debit account details
  5. Beneficiaries registered, account frozen and verified
  6. FTO transaction summary
  7. Accounts for which same installment payment initiated twice
  8. Beneficiaries for whom same installment payment initiated twice
  9. Payments rejected by the bank
  10. FTO pendency with banks
  11. FTO transaction summary
  12. Category wise FTO generated
  13. Identified false success/reject cases

G. Convergence reports

  1. Status of Aadhar/job card/SBM/SECC/Mobile no. seeded in MIS
  2. Status of Aadhar/MGNREGA Job card no. abstract
  3. House Sanction vs Work Creation in MGNREGA
  4. Convergence with PM Ujjawala Yojana

H. Social audit reports

  1. Beneficiary details for verification

Government schemes for housing indira awas yojana

Under IAY BPL SC/ST, freed bonded laborers and non SC/ST categories, housing construction and upgrading of existing waste thatched houses full grant assistance, planning guidelines, reference-center and the annual report all the relevant information is given, the beneficiary, fund management, homeless and Bimpitisi project related institutions information can be obtained.. This is centrally sponsored scheme where ratio is 75:25 from 2010-11 the construction cost had been fixed to 45,000 rupees but the state government added the amount and fixed at 70,000 rupees. The additional cost for construction is provided by state government.

Pradhan mantri awas yojana (PMAY)

At the slum decadal growth of 34%, the slum households are projected to go up to 18 million. 2 million non-slum urban poor households are proposed to be covered under the mission. Hence, total housing shortage envisaged to be addressed through the new mission in 20 million, the mission is being implemented during 2015-2022 and provides central assistance to Urban Local Bodies (ULB) and other implementing agencies through states/UTs. While the center is offering assistance to all states and UTs, it will also provide home loan interest subsidy for those buying their first home in urban areas. Under the scheme, the government will provide interest subsidy of three to four percent for a home loan amount of up to Rs 9 lakh and Rs 12 lakh. So far, over 3 lakh homes under PMAY (urban) have been constructed against a target of 40.6 lakh by 2022.

Integrated low-cost sanitation scheme

The objective of this scheme is to convert/construct low-cost sanitation units through sanitary two pits pour flush latrines with superstructures and appropriate variations to suit local conditions (area specific latrines) and construct new latrines where EWS Household have no latrines. The main components are central subsidy 75%, state subsidy 15% and beneficiary share 10% and will be funded in the manner.

National urban livelihoods mission

National Urban Livelihoods Mission (NULM) was launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, Government of India in 23rd September 2013 by replacing the existing Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY). The NULM will focus on organizing urban poor in their strong grassroots level institutions, creating opportunities for skill development leading to market-based employment and helping them to set up self-employment venture by ensuring easy access to credit. In the 12th Five Year Plan, NULM will be implemented in all district headquarter towns and all other towns with the population of 1 lakh or more than as per census 2011. At present 790 cities are under NULM. The primary target of NULM is the urban poor, including the urban homeless.

Rajiv awas yojna

Launched in 2009, the Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) envisages a slum-free India and encourages state and union territories (UT) to bring all illegal constructions within a formal system. To increase the affordable housing stock under the scheme, the Centre has approved the Affordable Housing in Partnership (AHP) scheme to be part of the RAY. The scheme also provides support of Rs 75,000 per economically-weaker sections (EWS), Dwelling Units (DUs) of the size of 21 to 40 sqm. So far, over Rs 1,398 crores has been spent while nearly 46,000 houses have been developed under the scheme.

Affordable housing in partnership (AHP)

The Government has also approved the scheme of Affordable Housing in Partnership (AHP) as part of Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) on 3rd September 2013 to increase affordable housing stock, as part of the preventive strategy. The Central support is provided at the rate of Rs. 75,000 per Economically Weaker Sections (EWS)/ Low Income Group (LIG) Dwelling Units (DUs) of the size of 21 to 40 sqm. In affordable housing projects taken up under various kinds of partnerships including private partnership. A project size 250 dwelling units is eligible for funding under the scheme. The DUs in the project can be a mix of EWS/LIG-A/LIG-B/Higher Categories/ commercial of which at least 60 percent of the FAE/FSI is used for dwelling units of carpet area of not more than 60 sq.m.

Conclusion

IAY was started for the Below Poverty line peoples. In PMAY scheme encourage the slum decadal growth of 34%, the slum households are projected to go up to 18 million. The NULM will focus on organizing urban poor in their strong grassroots level institutions, creating opportunities for skill development leading to market-based employment and helping them to set up self-employment venture by ensuring easy access to credit. AHP scheme supports the economically weaker section and low-income group peoples. Thus different schemes are implemented for the welfare of the people.

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