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The term westernisation in Russia was associated with the period of the peter the great and the Catherine during this period the reform of the Russian alphabet and the tolerance of the idea of employing the popular language for general literary purpose. Authors like Antioch Kantemir, Vasily Trediakovsky, and Mikhail Lomonosov in the earlier eighteenth century paved the way for the development of poets, historians, and prose writers. Gavrila Romanovich Derzhavin was the famous port before the Alexander Pushkin the famous ode of Derzhavin’s were “On the Death of Prince Meschersky” (1779), the playful “Ode to Felicia” (1784), the lofty “God” (1785), which was translated into all the languages of Europe, “Waterfall” (1794), occasioned by the death of Russian statesman and a favorite of Empress Catherine, Prince Potemkin, and “Bullfinch” (1800), a poignant elegy on the death of his friend, Count Alexander Suvorov—like Potemkin a military general.
He also provided lyrics for the first Russian national anthem, Grom pobedy, razdavajsya! (Let the Sound of Victory Sound!) the major prose writer were Aleksandr Nikolaevich Radishchev and Nikolai, Mikhailovich Karamzin he was first acknowledged master of modern Russian literature, and the father of the Russian literary language. He authored the most important Russian travelogue, Letters of a Russian Traveler, and was justly called the first Russian literary critic as well. In his later career he turned to writing history. He is best remembered today for his History of the Russian State, a 12-volume national history modelled after the works of Gibbon.
The nineteenth century called as a golden age of Russian literature because during this century romanticism arise and it ended with the realist style of writing such as Ivan Turgenev, Fyodor Dostoevsky, and Leo Tolstoy. Zhukovsky was perhaps the first great poet of the nineteenth century, who was identified with the rise of Russian Romanticism and Russian poetry in general on the other hand Pushkin credited with the literary Russian language and introducing the new level of artistry to Russian Literature. Nikolai Gogol was also a great novelist he had known for this humourist style and his stories like The Overcoat, The Nose his play The inspector general and his novel Dead Souls shows the corruption of the nineteenth century Russia civil service but strike a deeper chord at the problem of human vanity. After the Gogol came Leskov, Ivan Turgenev, Saltykov Shchedrin, and Goncharov.
Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoevsky are widely considered among the greatest novelists in the world. At the close of the century Anton Chekhov helped to introduce realism into the short story genre and into drama, becoming arguably the finest short story writer and leading dramatist internationally of his period. Other important nineteenth century developments included Ivan Krylov the fabulist; the literary criticism of Vissarion Belinsky and Herzen; playwrights such as Griboedov and Ostrovsky and Kozma Prutkov (a collective pen name) the satirist.
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