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Indian and Chinese Civilizations

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Our history dates back to 4 billion years. Until now the history of humanity is still being studied by scientists. It was said that the first humans on Earth were the Australopithecus afarensis. They have been extinct for 2.9 to 3.9 million years ago. Australopithecus afarensis bones were first discovered in Africa. Australopithecus robustus were the second form of humans who roamed the Earth. The bones of these humans were discovered in South Africa in 1938. They are also known to scientists as “Early Hominins.” Homo habilis was a species of early humans, who lived between roughly 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago. They are commonly known as the first species to use carved stone tools. These tools are usually found with their fossils. Homo erectus is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch. Its earliest fossil evidence dates to 1.8 million years ago. Neanderthals are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago. Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy for the only extant human species. The name is Latin for “wise man” and was introduced in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus.

Population was growing rapidly around the world which led to the use of civilizations. Civilizations were used in the past to keep order in communities. Egypt was one of the first civilizations to use literature. They wrote on stones called Hieroglyphs. Egyptians did not write words like we do today, they use symbols of actions and objects to communicate with other humans. The Egyptian civilization was ruled by Pharaohs. Egyptian’s population growth grew rapidly and because of that they were split into communities which led to having over 300 pharaohs ruling in Egypt. Egyptian had their own form of measurement to create buildings like the Pyramids. Pyramids were used as graves and protection for pharaohs who have past away. Dead pharaohs are wrapped around in a cloth to prepare them for the afterlife, this process is called “Mummification.”

The Indian civilization or the “Vedic Period” is one of the civilizations that had contributed so much to our society today. The Vedic Period is well known for its remarkable literature called the Sanskrit. Sanskrit was the Indians form of communication before. the language was used 3,500 years ago, and still used by some Indians today. Some Sanskrit words are similar to latin and english words. The oldest sacred texts of Hinduism were being composed during the Vedic period.

The Shang dynasty is one of the greatest and longest dynasties in China history. Chinese have been living on the North China plain for hundreds of years. Small communities merged to form this civilization. It is controlled from walled city at Anyang. The Chinese had a huge amount of land. The Chinese were divided into regions due to the dynasty’s population. The Chinese were ruled by a king. Kings and nobles lived in large timber or stone houses. They could afford art so they gathered around the capital at Anyang to buy different artifacts. Most people were farmers or agricultural workers. Peasants lived in small farming communities. They developed an early form of writing, pottery, silk making, and more. They had a lot of rituals, like burials, worship, celebrations, and more.Chinese during this period used stone, bronze,wood, and jade for building.

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